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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991

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  1. Arab Israeli Conflict

    In the 18th and 19th century, the land was ruled by a Turkish Muslim government called the Ottoman Empire. However during this rule the Palestinian Arabs wanted independence from the Ottoman Empire. By World War 1 there were 650,000 Arabs living in Palestine and only 85,000 Jews. World War 1 was a major turning point as Palestine became under the control of Britain and the Balfour Declaration stated that Jews could have a homeland in Palestine. At the end of World War 1 in 1918, the Ottoman Empire collapsed.

    • Word count: 3181
  2. In February 1943, the German army surrendered at Stalingrad. Was Hitler's interference the main reason for this defeat? Explain your answer.

    Underestimation of the Russians meant that Hitler didn't think twice about diverting Hoth's army, the 4th tank army, from the assault on Stalingrad with Von Paulus's army, the 6th army. The 6th army moved to Stalingrad alone, and the 4th tank army headed towards the Caucuses to capture oil. The idea was that the oil fields in the Caucuses would be captured, whilst the capture of Stalingrad would cut the Caucuses off from Russia. The problem with splitting the forces was that Hitler was undermining a key element of Blitzkrieg, the tank divisions which should have accompanied the 6th army.

    • Word count: 3402
  3. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Was President Kennedy the Saviour of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

    Simultaneously, a guerilla movement was gaining strength in the mountains of Cuba under the orders of Fidel Castro. America knew they were there but saw them as freedom fighters, not communists. On New Years Eve, 1958, a revoloution led by Castro took place. They overthrew Batista and Castro replaced him as leader. Castro wished to free Cuba from foreign influence and restore national pride. Castro also blamed America for Cuba's economic misery and soon took steps to establish closer ties with Moscow and the Soviet regime.

    • Word count: 5118
  4. Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a turning point in Relations between the Superpowers?

    too long for them to reach Kennedy or Khrushchev, meaning critical errors could be made in the time it took one side to get a letter or telegraph across to the other. It was decided that a telephone hotline was required that would link the White House and the Kremlin; it was installed in August of 1963. It would enable leaders to discuss problems before they reached a dangerous level. It had its other benefits as well, it should not be forgotten that the two sides had only just avoided war and therefore it was clear neither really trusted the other.

    • Word count: 3203
  5. Castro's revolution: WOMEN

    The other extreme of women in pre-revolutionary Cuba were the ladies of the country club. These extravagant women were revered by their generation, and according to the Cuban foreign minister in 1958, Andr�s Vargas G�mez, "She was a sacred creature and it was her right to have precedence in all things." While the number of professional women in Cuba grew throughout the first half of the twentieth century (lawyers, doctors, businesswomen, journalists, teachers, and musicians), the huge discrepancy between them and the average Cuban woman was not shrinking. The view of women as pura o putas existed, and equality was a long way away.

    • Word count: 3061
  6. How Far Was Gorbachev Responsible For The End Of Soviet Union?

    and that he had "overreached himself" (ZA P73). Flaws in his character had caused him to take on reform on a scale he could not handle and this lead to destabilization. This quote is confirmed by the fact "[he was] unaware the scale of the crisis" (R+FotSE P111) and "Gorbachev's task [was] too big" (MG+tEoSP P16). Naivety is a weakness because it makes decisions inaccurate and not as strong as they should be. There was also an element of ego in Gorbachev that could have affected his power, leading too actions which would be done to save personal face, for example he would disavow orders that he gave to troops to open fire on nationalist protestors in Tbilisi, Georgia (ZA P84).

    • Word count: 5382
  7. Should George Bush Press Ahead with his Plans for National Missile Defence?

    As Vladimir Putin said, it is "like hitting a bullet with a bullet"2. The overarching aim of this system is, as President Bush states, "to protect all fifty states - and our friends and allies and deployed forces overseas - from missile attacks by rogue nations, or accidental launches..."3 It is important to note that this essay will not deal with the technical aspect of NMD, regarding the differing options available, a discussion best left to the experts. This essay will tackle the political questions that it raises regarding foreign affairs and the impact on global security.

    • Word count: 3070
  8. " Individuals do not 'shape' historical events; the best they can do is to respond to opportunities." With reference to one or more individuals you have studied, how far do you support this claim?

    Che not only spoke of the fighting, but of what a revolutionary's duty was after the war was over. These ideas were very present around the world in nations where guerrilla warfare was being utilised to fight their oppressors. People all around the world scrutinised his every move, waiting to see what he would do next. Che's plan concerning the future of Cuba was often a topic of many debates. When Che became the Minister of Industry for Cuba shortly after the revolution, he imposed many ideas that were foreign to the country's prior state that would bring changes to Cuba's poor and working people.

    • Word count: 3055
  9. Was Ernesto Guevara Deserved Of His Iconic Status?

    Like the much used stencil of Guevara's determined visage, the general perception of his life is flat and two-dimensional. No where more so, it seems, then in the country richest in Guevara's history, Cuba. An article printed July 21st 1997 in Newsweek, entitled 'Return Of The Rebel', explored Cuban society in the wake of the long-awaited discovery of Guevara's skeleton in Bolivian town of Vallegrande. In it journalist Brook Lamer explains how 'the Cuban Government played a pivotal role in creating the Che mystique, and it is not about to let its franchise slip away'2. Understandable, viewing the twenty-two ton statue of Guevara that still rules over Santa Clara.

    • Word count: 3225
  10. The basic idea of my project is to demonstrate that Colombia's global reputation, drugs and terrorism, has been decaying during the past decade (1990-2000).

    REPORT Could a film industry or even the media stigmatise the citizens of a country as violent, criminals, cheaters, etc.? This question always comes to my head each time that in a movie or in a TV program the name of Colombia appears as synonymous with mafia, drugs, criminals, and brutal violence. I've always thought that cities and countries have the right to protect their image, and even more in such a competitive world. This can result in very serious economic problems and can break or damage the countries international reputation.

    • Word count: 3304
  11. The Duvalier regime compared to other dictatorships on Haiti during the middle of the 20th century

    From 1911 to 1915 as much as six different Haitian presidents were overthrown or killed by the angry mobs. From 1934 to 1946 the country wasn't really ruled by anyone at all, but in 1957 came a man named Francois Duvalier came to power2, and along with his son he ruled Haiti for nearly 30 years, a feat no man has been able to concede before or after. The history of Haiti In order to understand the political situation in Haiti we must go back to the day the country became independent, in 1804. St. Domingue had been one of the most prosperous slave colonies of France since the mid 1500s3.

    • Word count: 4635
  12. Cuban Missile Crisis Sources Questions

    Secondly, Kennedy had the option of invading Cuba. This would have resulted in high casualties on both sides, probably would have been in the same light as the Bay of Pigs failure, and almost definitely would have resulted in the Soviet invasion of Berlin. This option did not have a one hundred per cent chance of success. From Source C we can see that Kennedy also had the option of a nuclear strike in mind. The air force, as well as all other forces in the military, had been put on alert for either bombing Cuba or Russia with nuclear missiles.

    • Word count: 3146
  13. Cold War Short Essays - Questions and Answers.

    This was strength in numbers. Describe one effect of the Soviet occupation on the people of Hungary in the late 1940?s (2 marks) The Hungarian people opposed the communist government within their country. This hatred fuelled their determination to overthrow the government in the Hungarian Uprising of 1956. Describe one cause of the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 (2 marks) Khrushchev made his ?secret speech? which criticised Stalin?s rule over the satellite states. This idea of de-Stalinisation encouraged Hungary to take the opportunity to overthrow the communist government, as they thought that Khrushchev was weaker than Stalin and thus easier to overthrow.

    • Word count: 12921
  14. Edexcel Cold War 1943-1991 Revision (Detailed)

    Each of the four zones were occupied by one of the allies. Soviet Union to wage war against Japan once Germany was defeated Germany would be divided into four zones (and Berlin the same way) Demilitarize Germany A United Nations was to be set up Hunt down and charge Nazi war criminals Re-establish democracy in Germany including free-speech An area of eastern Poland was added to the Soviet Union. Stalin insisted this to be along the Oder and Neisse River.

    • Word count: 6779

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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