• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Ethical Issues in Psychology

Extracts from this document...


Over time, many psychological studies have taken place, some of which have resulted in the investigation of various ethical issues. Milgram's 1963 obedience experiment is certainly one criticised by psychologists such as Baumrind. In 1963 Milgram advertised for people to join his "study of the memory" through the local press. Milgram informed paired participants that one would be a student, and the other would take on a teacher role. The student, who was actually an actor, was put into a small room, where he had to answer questions. If the student provided the wrong answer to the question they were given an electric shock, each wrong answer would see an increase in electrical current and more violent shocks, at one point the student would complain repeatedly of heart palpitations. ...read more.


had in fact been fooled into thinking this was a live study, but in reality no one had been electrocuted and the distress was a just a charade. The participating teachers had been deceived and gave no informed consent. Milgram concluded, obedience is a consequence of social pressure rather than a personality defect. This study can be can be analysed by looking more closely at the costs and benefits to the individuals that participated, costs can be defined as negative impact and benefits as positive impact. In 1964 Baumrind severely criticised Milgram's study. Her concern was that the participants didn't give informed consent, which may lead to harmful effects to them in the future. ...read more.


Baumrind suggested long-term mental health illnesses may occur within the subjects, Milgram commissioned independent psychiatric examinations a year after the study, these concluded no signs of mental harm were apparent. Today Milgram's study would have not been allowed due to the introduction of ethical guidelines for all psychology studies. Baumrind made valid criticisms, suggesting long-term damages to participants during her analysis of Milgram's study but he argued his case to every point made and went on to complete a follow up study where 84% of participants were glad to have taken part, and 75% felt that they learnt something of importance about themselves. I support Milgram's suggestion that if the participants felt that they came to no harm, then the experiment could only have resulted in helping society understand why people obey authority. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Personality Psychology

    Suicide is a particular risk in borderline patients. Histrionic personality disorder is associated particularly with somatoform disorders. People with narcissistic personality disorder are at risk for anorexia nervosa and substance abuse as well as experiencing depression. Cluster C: Avoidant personality disorder is associated with anxiety disorders (especially social phobia).

  2. Discuss issues relating to the ethics of SSR

    A major concern in the interpretation and application of research findings in psychology is that they may be used for reasons other than those for which they were originally intended. Not all socially sensitive research issues are quite as controversial as Hamer's work on the inheritance of a gene connected

  1. Ego's and social health

    Therefore, this stage is characterised by the need for Separation and Individuation. Separation, defined by Mahler as an intrapsychic achievement. This is not to be confused with physical separation, but rather referred to as the inner thoughts of achievement and ability act independent from their parent or caregiver.

  2. Critical Appreciation of Wollheim, R., and

    Throughout the text there is continual evidence which illustrates the argument that it is written with Wollheim's political interests always uppermost in his thought. For example, Wollheim writes 'contrary to certain popular conceptions Freud had never believed that the whole of the man's instinctual endowment was sexual.'

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work