"From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?"
"From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?" Social Influence research considers issues such as conformity, obedience to authority and minority/majority influence. However, some of this research has been criticised as being unethical. The ethical issues that arise from this type of research are informed consent i.e. that all participants are aware of all aspects of the research; that participants should not be deceived, the right to withdraw from the research at any time and protection from psychological harm. One of the most controversial pieces of research was undertaken by Milgram (1974) who was studying obedience to authority. He created a study to see whether participants would obey an experimenter when ordered to give another person electric shocks if they answered a question incorrectly. No electric shocks were actually administered and the learner was an accomplice of the experimenter. The main finding was that 65% of the participants gave a lethal electric shock of 450 volts if told to do so. Milgram concluded that most people would obey orders if someone in authority issued them. The ethical issues arising from Milgram's experiment were protection from harm and deception. Participants could have been psychologically damaged and they were not aware that the learner was an
"Discuss ways in which Milgram's obedience experiment could have broken current B.P.S (British Psychological Society) guidelines."
Access Psychology: Level 3: Introductory Module: Assignment For this assignment I have been asked to, "Discuss ways in which Milgram's obedience experiment could have broken current B.P.S (British Psychological Society) guidelines." I will look at Milgram's experiment, compare and discuss the ways in which he would have broken current B.P.S guidelines. Milgram would have broken a number of different guideline that is in place today, Milgram's experiment has been said to be unethical and would not have taken place based upon these grounds. The guideline that would have been broken, stopping Milgram's experiment been able to take place were: > Consent client did not give > Misleading clients > Debriefing was not appropriate > Protection of participants > Right to withdraw Although Milgram's experiment would have broken these guidelines he could have argued that his experiment was a good thing and his actions were justified, not breaking current B.P.S guideline, these were: > The methodology > Right to withdraw > Debriefed and reassured after the experiment > Protection of participants The ways in which Milgram's experiment broke current B.P.S guidelines, how he could have broken these guidelines are: Consent, client did not give: Researches are obliged, whenever possible, to obtain the informed consent of participants in a psychological study.
The Effects of Classical Conditioning on Human Salivation Rate by Utilising Sweets and the Term "Cellar Door".
The Effects of Classical Conditioning on Human Salivation Rate by Utilising Sweets and the Term "Cellar Door" ABSTRACT: The aim of this experiment was to test the theory that the salivation rate of humans could be manipulated by means of Classical Conditioning. The two-part experiment was performed at S:t Eskils Gymnasium on several classes with an average of ˜ 15 students in each class. The participants were required to complete a form concerning the rate of their salivation level at the moment on a six-grade scale comprised of the following options; "None", "Little", "Normal", "Slightly more than usual", "Much more than usual" and "Extreme amounts", afterwards each participant aquired a sour-tasting sweet. Awaiting our command the participants were required to lick the sweet after hearing the term "Cellar Door ", a term chosen due to its neutral nature free of associations with sweets. We repeated the term ten times with a slight pause in between and after ten trials the participants were allowed to eat the sweet. The participants were then left briefly, without further exposure to the researchers for approximately fifteen minutes. After re-entering the classroom the term "Cellar Door " was repeated without the presence of the sweet. The participants were again required to estimate their rate of salivation on the six-grade scale. Our statistical calculations mainly based
There are many methods of research. Interviews are useful for both quantitative and qualitative research depending on the questions asked. They can also be structured or unstructured or a mixture of both. They are particularly useful if the researcher
The three pieces of literature to be reviewed are a journal called 'Supporting disaffected pupils: perspectives from the pupils, their parents and their teachers' (Vulliamy, G and Webb, R. 2003), a research report 'Absence from school: a study of its causes and effects in seven LEA's (Malcolm, H et al 2003) and a report 'Parents carers' attitudes towards school attendance' (Dalziel, D & Henthorne, K, 2005). The methods used to support the research were field work observations, semi structured interviews, questionnaires, a collection and analysis of statistical data from school, face-to-face interviews, postal questionnaires, telephone interviews, developmental work, telephone survey and depth interviews. To begin with the question needs to be asked, what is research? Green (2000) suggests that research is an investigation of a topic for a purpose. (Green 2000) Quantitative research produces results which can be expressed using numbers or statistics. This type of research is useful if you are exploring the extent to which something happens or if the focus is on how many, how often, how many people think and so on. (Bell, J. 1993) Qualitative research obtains view points and personal feelings from its participants. These are not easily measured. Qualitative researchers wish to gain insight into their topic rather than make an analysis of statistics. They are less concerned
Psychology coursework Hyun-Ju Lee Introduction A fairly conventional definition of stress is given by Robbins (1998) in the following terns: '...A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.' A definition relation of this type relate stress to the pressures which most-if not all individuals experience at some time of their professional or private lives. Depending on the particular context, these pressures can be either positive (an opportunity) or negative (a threat, constraint or demand)-or quite conceivably both of these at once. The above also highlights the tensions inherent in such situations for it is surely these, which ultimately trigger stress. There can, of course, be little doubt that in some respects pressure (perhaps in the form of a standard or a deadline) can increase the motivation of individuals by 'concentrating the mind'. Pressures of this type are often referred to as 'positive stress'. This notion appears to lie Bailley's (1991) comment that stress, while part of working life. '...Can also be the spice of life'? While stress is notoriously difficult to define accurately, it is possible to identify three broad pressure sources, which might be termed: Self-imposed (arising out of our
Introduction Background research The study carried out is based on the theories of schema. It focuses on the recent Asian tsunami. It aims to find out if Asians or non-Asians will be more aware and have a better understanding of the incident because of a schema that relate to the area involved. All human beings possess categorical rules or scripts that they use to interpret the world. New information is processed according to how it fits into these rules, called schema. These schemas can be used not only to interpret but also to predict situation occurring in our environment. Information that does not fit into these schemas may not be comprehended, or may not be comprehended correctly. The learner in schema theory actively builds schema and revises them in light on new information. Each individual's schema is unique and depended on that individual's experiences and cognitive processes. Schemas are meaning-driven and networks of propositions are actively constructed by the learner. When we are asked to recall a story that we were told, we are able to reconstruct the meaning of the story, but usually not the exact sentences that we are told but the story is remembered by actively constructing a meaningful representation of the story in our memory. This theory can be tested in the levels of culture and understanding of the cultures surroundings. The study tries to find out
TITLE Conformity on Social Deviancy Using Crossing Methods. Abstract The aim of the study was to determine if any conformity on social deviancy would occur whilst instigating an unsafe crossing at a pedestrian crossing. A small group of psychology students from Magee Campus, University of Ulster used the aid of unsuspecting pedestrians to complete the study. The students waited and crossed at a green light/ red man and recorded how many, if any, males, females and groups proceeded to cross with them. A sample of 100 pedestrians was used and although individuals were categorised into gender, age was not recorded. With the use of SPSS we analysed the data and this was interpreted using a one way ANOVA, as there was a dependant variable and independent variable with 3 or more levels. Our findings revealed through a homogeneity of variance test, Lev (2, 97) = 3.038 p>.05 our results were significant. We further found using the ANOVA table that F(2, 97)=41.544 p<.05 therefore the null hypothesis was rejected as a result. Introduction When we find ourselves in groups we inevitably find ourselves in the minority, we often feel uncomfortable in these situations so we generally seek out groups with interests somewhat similar to our own. None of us are immune to social influences and most instances to conformity are beneficial to all of us. Many scientists have researched on
Title Group Size and Conformity. Abstract The experiment I will carry out to find my aim will reflect the experiment Asch conducted in 1951. To find out if conformity does really exist and if increasing the number of confederates in a group will have any significant changes. Previous research has indicated that conformity increases when confederates increase. I will have a group of students, who will undergo a test within a group. The number of confederates will increase within the group, starting with two people, 1 of whom will be a confederate. The participants will be from my college and they will roughly be of the same age group. The group size will increase with the addition of more participants and a further one confederate. The chosen method for this experiment is experimental as I am comparing two variables, group size and conformity. I will use an independent measure design as different participants will be used in different situations. We want to see in this experiment if conformity occurs when someone voluntarily performs an act because others are doing it as previous research has indicated. Introduction Conformity is defined by Zimbardo (1992) as, 'A tendency for people to adopt behaviour, values and attitudes of other members of a reference group.' Mann (1969) identified the two major types of conformity: normative conformity and informational conformity.
Results form surveys are often taken at face value. Show, by discussing the construction and administration of postal questionnaires, where errors could occur in the data collection process.
Results form surveys are often taken at face value. Show, by discussing the construction and administration of postal questionnaires, where errors could occur in the data collection process. A survey is a way of systematically gathering information using structured interviews or postal/ telephone questionnaires, it also involves the interpretation of this data by enumeration and statistical analysis. Results form surveys should not be taken at face value as they often are. The data collection process needs to be looked at in greater detail and understood before the results can be correctly interpreted. This essay will explain how and where errors can occur in the data collection process by discussing the administration and construction of postal questionnaires. Postal questionnaires rely on self-completion and are widely used to gather information from a large sample of the population. One of the main problems with postal questionnaires is that they are self-completion. People who are illiterate or have disabilities such as dyslexia may have problems completing questionnaires. (Simmons 2001.) Due to certain groups of people being unable to respond, this may affect the results of the survey. Therefore postal questionnaires should, where ever possible avoid being sent to these groups of people although this may result in a unrepresentative
This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database - http://www.coursework.info/ - - The affect of leading questions upon recall of a previous event Jessica Allen, Katie Hodgkinson, Anna Jenkyns and Sarah Mitchell, Abstract Background There has been much debate about the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness testimony. In particular, many studies have investigated the effects of presenting eyewitnesses with misleading information either before or after the witnessed event. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that subsequent questioning, and the use of ‘leading questions’ can influence the memory of eyewitnesses. Aim The aim of the study was to replicate the study of Loftus and Palmer (1974), in which they investigated the effects of leading questions on their participants’ memory of a particular event, in this case a car crash. Method After conducting a pilot study, thirty university students were randomly allocated to different groups: bumped, collided or smashed. Each group was shown the same video of a car crash and were subsequently asked to fill out a questionnaire. All questions were the same for each group, apart from one question where the verb was changed, “How fast did you perceive the car to be travelling when it (bumped/collided/smashed) into the other car?” Results The analytical comparisons of the