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Sex and Gender Revision Notes

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Sex and Gender Revision Notes Sex identity refers to our biological make-up. Our physical characteristics that determine whether we are male or female. Gender identity refers to our emotional feelings and whether we consider ourselves to be male or female. Sex typing is classifying objects into for male or female. Androgyny is the existence of something male and female characteristics in one person. Biological facts Male Female XY XX Testes Womb Sperm duct Vagina Testosterone Progesterone Penis Maccoby and Jacklin's study They found that: Verbal abilities Girls better Visio-spatial Boys better Intelligence Girls better Arithmetic reasoning Boys better Aggressiveness Boys more Sexual orientation: the way in which people are attracted to a male or female. Biology has an influence on our gender identity. This is supported by Money's case study of circumcision. There was a boy born who had very damaged penis so they decided to give him a castration and he was brought up as a girl. However, a few years into adulthood, the girl hated girl's clothes, wanted to do male things that she had to be told that she was born a boy. ...read more.


Freud concluded that Hans was actually scared of his father, not of the horse and the horse symbolized his father. His father had a black moustache, which symbolizes the black coloring. Hans was afraid that the horse might bite him just as his father might castrate him. Evaluation of the approach: * Case studies cannot be applied to everyone else. * The study is putting women as inferior to men. Women had 'penis envy' and they don't internalize as much because they don't have strong morals. Practical applications: * One parent families are common nowadays and it is usually the mother bringing up the child so there are no issues with that and boys don't have gender identity problems. Social learning theory Observation/imitation is when someone learns someone else's behaviours. Children imitate similar behaviours. Bandura showed that aggressive boys were more likely to copy behaviours of aggressive men than aggressive women. This suggests that children will copy and follow the behaviours and attitudes of similar people, suggesting that they imitate same sex behaviour. Children are likely to copy appropriate behaviours. ...read more.


Method Observed 24 sets of parents with their families. Results Found that girls were encouraged to play with dolls, dance, appreciate clothes and stay close to their parents. Boys were encouraged to be active and play with cars or guns. Conclusion From this it can be concluded that parents treat their children differently but all these encouragements provide a basis for gender identity. Evaluation 1. Parents might only be acting in that way as they are being observed; responding to demand characteristics. Evaluation of the theory: * Doesn't take into account hormones and chromosomes. * Difficult to explain why some males do adopt certain female behaviours and vice versa. Practical applications: * Single parent families: Only mothers bring up children and so male children have no male role model to imitate but there is no problem with these children's gender identity. * Male aggression in gender models: Studies always show that males have higher aggression levels than females and that may be because of the gender models they are exposed to. We can reduce the exposure of boys to non-aggressive male gender models through TV, films and other media portrayals of male violence. ...read more.

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