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An Investigation into the Factors that Effect the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate.

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Introduction

An Investigation into the Factors that Effect the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. Aim: *- Investigating the diverse factors that affect the rate of a reaction, by monitoring the effect of varying concentrations on reactants. In this experiment I am going to find out how the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid is affected by changing the concentration. The equation to this is as follows: Sodium + Hydrochloric = Sodium + Sulphur + Sulphur + Water Thiosulphate Acid Chloride Dioxide Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCL (aq) = 2NaCl(aq) + SO(g) + SO2(s) + H2O(l) This reaction usually produces a yellow precipitate. Preliminary Work: *- Previous to my final experiment, I conducted a prior procedure to confirm a relevant range of readings. In order for me to provide myself with not only accurate, however also relevant information, I felt it appropriate to perform various personal assessments in order to provide myself with the best and also in-depth range of readings. The speed of reaction can be observed either by how quickly the reactants move or how quickly the products are forming. It's usually a lot easier to measure products forming. There are three different ways that the speed of the reaction can be measured: *- Precipitation - this when the product of the reaction is a precipitate which clouds the solution how long it takes for it to disappear. *- Change in Mass (usually gas given off) - Any reaction that produces a gas can be carried out on a mass balance and as the gas is released the mass disappearing is easily measured. ...read more.

Middle

*- Also stirring and mixing can be seen as a factor, due to the fact that by stirring or mixing, you provide the particles with more kinetic energy, therefore altering the rate of reaction The factor which I intent to change is the concentration. I intend to change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. Factors to Keep Constant: As temperature is a one of the key factors which can alter the rate of a reaction, I have chosen to keep this constant in order me to get a accurate reading. In order for me to achieve an accurate reading, I will need to do all my experiments in the same room. Fair test: In this experiment we are trying to find the rate of reaction using concentration as a factor, so there is a number of things we need to make sure we do to keep it a fair test. *- Firstly, we need to keep a chemical at a constant concentration. So, in this experiment we have chose to keep sodium thiosulphate at a constant concentration. We could have, however, used hydrochloric acid as a constant, but I was provided with the sodium thiosulphate. *- Next we must make sure that the hydrochloric acid and the sodium thiosulphate solution is kept at a constant volume throughout the experiment. If the volume is different, then it could give different results to if it was at a constant volume. *- We must start the stop watch at the exact time as we put the hydrochloric acid and the sodium thiosulphate into the conical flask. To do this it is a lot easier if there are two people doing the experiment, so one person can put the two substances in the HCl, and one person can start the stop watch. ...read more.

Conclusion

In this case I have encountered that when the concentration is increased in a reaction, the particles will have more kinetic energy and thus move faster. It is clearly stated in my graph that there is a positive correlation which is coincidental with my prediction, however due to time, I was unable to discover whether or not the graph had a curve in it. Evaluation: *- I was pleased with the results that I obtained from my experiments; they proved to be accurate as my repeat readings were very close to each other. The results also undoubtedly showed a relationship between the increase in molarity and the increase in speed. There is however, always room for improvement. Firstly, I did not take into account that other scientific instruments such as light sensors which are connected to a computer can be used, and also the fact that if I had time, I could have repeated the experiment a few times more in order to provide myself with an even more accurate reading. Strong evidence: *- My evidence was reliable and strong enough to support my conclusion, in graph this was clearly exploited. Anomalous results: *- As far as I can tell, no anomalous results, (An anomalous result being a result that does not agree with the general trend of the other readings). Further to provide additional relevant evidence: *- There are a number of things which I could do to improve my results or even provide myself with a new, more accurate set of results. As I said, I could have used a light sensor which would have given me a more varied scope of results. The other thing I could have also done was to carry out the experiment more than twice. By Tyrone Sinclair 1 Tyrone Sinclair ...read more.

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