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# An investigation of the factors affecting the output of a transformer.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

## Planning

Transformers are used in everyday life. They work on the principle of Electromagnetic field induction. Current (electrons) has an electromagnetic field. This field can manipulate the field of magnets. Also the field of magnets can manipulate the field of electrons in a similar way to how magnets interact. Transformers work by using the fields to transfer energy through the field lines:

Wire induces a magnetic field in the iron core.

Iron core.        The field lines

Are cut causing

Wire        an induced current.

Causing a voltage in the first wire, causes a current. Around the current is a magnetic field, this induced a field in the iron core, the field lines of the core are then cut by a conductor (the second wire) and so a voltage is induced, in the reverse of how a voltage was induced in the transformer.  In this way energy is transferred from electrical energy, to magnetic energy, back to electrical energy. The field lines must be continually moving in order to induce a current in the second coil (because a voltage is only induced when the field lines are being cut). The only way to do this is make the field lines change directions continually, in order to do that the electrons in the primary coil must be changing direction continually, and so we have to use alternating current.

In order to make this more efficient the wires are coiled around the core. The point being that the more contact the wire is the more energy is put into the core and the more comes out, making the process more efficient.

Middle

0.149

0.653

22.828

3

45

15

3 to 1

1.96

0.149

0.653

22.828

4

45

15

3 to 1

2.98

0.214

0.992

21.572

4

45

15

3 to 1

2.98

0.214

0.992

21.572

4

45

15

3 to 1

2.98

0.214

0.992

21.572

5

45

15

3 to 1

3.69

0.345

1.230

28.044

5

45

15

3 to 1

3.69

0.345

1.230

28.044

5

45

15

3 to 1

3.69

0.345

1.230

28.044

6

45

15

3 to 1

4.43

0.472

1.476

31.970

6

45

15

3 to 1

4.43

0.472

1.476

31.970

6

45

15

3 to 1

4.43

0.472

1.476

31.970

7

45

15

3 to 1

5.05

0.496

1.683

29.444

7

45

15

3 to 1

5.05

0.496

1.683

29.444

7

45

15

3 to 1

5.05

0.496

1.683

29.444

8

45

15

3 to 1

5.65

0.509

1.885

27.030

8

45

15

3 to 1

5.65

0.509

1.885

27.030

8

45

15

3 to 1

5.65

0.509

1.885

27.030

Average

45

15

3 to 1

3.20

0.289

1.067

25.449

1

45

30

3 to 2

0.67

0.066

0.447

14.857

1

45

30

3 to 2

0.67

0.066

0.447

14.857

1

45

30

3 to 2

0.67

0.066

0.447

14.587

2

45

30

3 to 2

1.17

0.125

0.782

16.046

2

45

30

3 to 2

1.17

0.125

0.782

16.046

2

45

30

3 to 2

1.17

0.125

0.078

16.046

3

45

30

3 to 2

1.96

0.241

1.305

18.452

3

45

30

3 to 2

1.96

0.241

1.305

18.452

3

45

30

3 to 2

1.96

0.241

1.305

18.452

4

45

30

3 to 2

2.98

0.346

1.984

17.438

4

45

30

3 to 2

2.98

0.346

1.984

17.438

4

45

30

3 to 2

2.98

0.346

1.984

17.438

5

45

30

3 to 2

3.69

0.411

2.460

16.705

5

45

30

3 to 2

3.69

0.411

2.460

16.705

5

45

30

3 to 2

3.69

0.411

2.460

16.705

6

45

30

3 to 2

4.43

0.463

2.952

15.669

6

45

30

3 to 2

4.43

0.463

2.952

15.699

6

45

30

3 to 2

4.43

0.463

2.952

15.699

7

45

30

3 to 2

5.05

0.486

3.366

14.432

7

45

30

3 to 2

5.05

0.468

3.366

14.432

7

45

30

3 to 2

5.05

0.468

3.366

14.432

8

45

30

3 to 2

5.65

0.499

3.770

13.248

8

45

30

3 to 2

5.65

0.499

3.770

13.248

8

45

30

3 to 2

5.65

0.499

3.770

13.248

Average

45

30

3 to 2

3.20

0.330

2.133

15.856

1

45

45

1 to 1

0.61

0.079

0.610

12.959

1

45

45

1 to 1

1

45

45

1 to 1

2

45

45

1 to 1

1.07

0.126

1.068

11.793

2

45

45

1 to 1

2

45

45

1 to 1

3

45

45

1 to 1

1.78

0.238

1.783

13.326

3

45

45

1 to 1

3

45

45

Conclusion

Use more wiresUse more voltages, in order to get a more accurate mapping of the curve.Use a fixed amount of current to get more accurate resultsCheck the amount of energy in joules going in and the amount coming out, in order to get a better idea of efficiency.Use more numbers of coilsUse a power box with a dial so exact inputs can be checkedHave better heat insulation on the wires so energy is not lostHave better connections that don’t give as much resistance.

The results were reliable enough for conclusions to be drawn but are not very reliable, even though they correlated well and the trend they show is solid. Because the trend is only visible up to about 3.5V (input) before it starts to fall in efficiency very dramatically. This was because the secondary current never reached it’s full potential, the current limiter always popped because too much current was being drawn. This was because each voltage corresponds to current and if there is resistance then more current is drawn.

Other experiments I would like to do are:

1. A repeat of this experiment changing the coil ratios and the input voltages, keeping the number of turns on the primary coil constant. I predict the same result. But I would like to use more voltages, from 0V to 10V.
2. Investigating other metals like nickel, steel and copper as cores to see how they affect the experiment, I predict that the larger the atom the stronger the fields.
3. The separation of the coils, I predict that the larger the separation the more energy is lost. I want to see how these effect the experiment varying the distance from intertwined, to 10 cm.
4. Larger of smaller core. I predict that the larger the core the more efficient the output because of a larger amount of iron atoms, therefore more magnetic fields therefore more field lines, therefore more field lines cut.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

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