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Analysis of Neutralisation of NaOH

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Introduction

Analysis The results of my investigation show that the larger the amount of hydrogen in the acid, the smaller the amount of acid needed to neutralise the alkali. This is because when an acid is added to an alkali each hydrogen ion in the acid joins an hydroxide ion in the alkali to form neutral water. Hydrogen ion from Hydroxide ion from Neutral water acid alkali The solution only becomes neutral if the amount of hydrogen ions and the amount of hydroxide ions are equal. If there were more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions then once every hydroxide ion joined with 1 hydrogen ion there would be hydrogen ions left meaning the solution would become acidic. ...read more.

Middle

If an amount of acid containing more hydrogen, equal to the amount of acid containing less hydrogen that was needed to neutralise the alkali, was added to the alkali the solution would not be neutralised it would be acidic. This is because there would be more hydrogen ions in the acid containing more hydrogen. If that amount of acid containing less hydrogen was needed to neutralise the alkali, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxide ions must have been equal. Therefore if the same amount of an acid containing more hydrogen ions was used, the amount of hydrogen and hydroxide ions would not be equal and the solution would not be neutralised. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because of its rate of dissociation. When the acid is dissolved in water to make a solution, it donates some of its hydrogen atoms to the solution where they become hydrogen ions. How many of its hydrogen atoms the acid donates is its rate of dissociation. Hydrochloric and sulphuric acid have nearly 100% rate of dissociation, meaning that they donate almost all of their hydrogen. Phosphoric acid only has roughly a 50% rate of dissociation, meaning that it donates only about half of its hydrogen. This means it only has about half the ability to neutralise as you would expect, which is why it took almost twice the amount I predicted to neutralise the alkali. ?? ?? ?? ?? Bethan Massey ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a very good experiment analysis, a little repetitive, but the Science is sound, showing a good understanding. All the necessary elements are present to award a high grade.

4 stars.

Marked by teacher Kate Gardiner 17/10/2013

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