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I am going to investigate the rate of reaction using dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon at different concentrations

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Introduction

Rates of reaction Plan Aim: My aim in this experiment I am going to investigate the rate of reaction using dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon at different concentrations of the acid. Prediction: I predict that the change in concentration will affect the rate of reaction. The higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid is the faster the magnesium ribbon will react. My reason for predicting this is the collision theory. The collision theory states that in order for the particles to react they must collide. The more collisions there are the faster the reaction will be. The particles must collide with enough energy to have a reaction. The concentration affects the rate of reactions because when the concentration of the reactant is very high then the amount of particles will increase and so will the number of collisions so that the reaction will be faster. The word and symbol equation for this experiment will be: Magnesium + hydrochloric --> magnesium + hydrogen ribbon acid chloride Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> MgCl2 (aq) +H2 (g) Apart from the concentration there are other variables that will affect the rate of reaction: * The surface area could compromise the results making them inaccurate. When the surface area is greater there are more collisions because more particles are exposed to the reactant therefore the rate of reactions will be affected. * The temperature can affect the rate of reaction because when the temperature is very high the particles speed up and gain kinetic energy to collide with more force. ...read more.

Middle

to make sure that the experiment is safe and therefore I will take the following precautions: * Wear safety goggles to prevent any chemicals getting into my eyes. * Wear a lab coat so that if a chemical spills on me it will not touch my skin. * Wash my hands immediately if any chemicals spill on them. * Calls the teacher immediately if any acid spills. Obtaining Evidence After having done the pilot experiment I have done my actual results using what I know I have done wrong when doing the pilot experiment. The results that I got were as follows: 1M of HCl 2M of HCl 4M of HCl Experiment 1 reaction time (s) 156.59 43.63 23.12 Experiment 2 reaction time (s) 157.37 45.30 22.57 Experiment 3 reaction time (s) 161.56 45.53 22.16 Average reaction time (s) 158.51 44.82 22.62 The independent variable in this experiment is the concentration of HCl and it is what I deliberately change step by step by step. The dependant variable in this experiment is the reaction time and it is what changes depending on the independent variable. All the other variables like the temperature, surface area and the catalysts must be kept constant to make the experiment a fair test. I will also record my results using a graph in order to show the difference between each experiment: Analysis The results that I got for the experiment were as follows; using 1M of hydrochloric acid the magnesium finished reacting ...read more.

Conclusion

I could have improved my method by doing some small, but yet critical things to improve the experiment. These would include rinsing out the measuring cylinder when pouring a different concentration of hydrochloric acid just to make sure there is not some of the previous acid left which would not affect the results by much but would still be more accurate. Another way in which I could have improved my experiment would be to measure from the bottom of the meniscus so that I get the exact amount of acid and therefore make the results more accurate. Luckily, I did not have any anomalous results and therefore I can come to a firm conclusion using the information that I got. To get more accurate results I could improve my experiment by using more efficient equipment that would give me more accurate results. The magnesium could be measured to a more approximate point and the volume of acid could have been better manufactured then using a measuring cylinder. Using a thermometer I could make sure that the room temperature would be kept constant throughout the experiment. I could also make sure that the pressure in the room was also kept constant; I would do this using a monometer. From my own knowledge I know that if magnesium is left out in the air it reacts with the oxygen to form magnesium oxide and therefore some pieces of magnesium ribbon would react faster than others. ?? ?? ?? ?? 07/05/2007 Chemistry 1 ...read more.

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