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I am going to perform an experiment which will aid Virgin Trains in looking for the supreme hot drinks cup to be used in their buffet bars. The design must keep the drink as hot as possible for as long as possible.

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Introduction

Craig Reynolds

Science Coursework

I am going to perform an experiment which will aid Virgin Trains in looking for the supreme hot drinks cup to be used in their buffet bars. The design must keep the drink as hot as possible for as long as possible. I will be investigating what affects the rate of which liquids in cups cool down. Factors to be taken into account are;

Convection.

Convection is a mode of heat transfer through gases and in this case, liquids. Convection depends on the fact that fluids expand when heated and undertake a decrease in density. As a result, the warmer, less dense portion of the fluid will rise through the surrounding cooler fluid in accordance to Archimedes Principle. If heat continues to be supplied, the cooler fluid that flows in to replace the rising warmer fluid will become heated and also rise. This causes

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Middle

68.2

63.4

60.3

60.1

64.8

67.5

8

66.6

61.3

58.3

57.8

62.8

65.7

9

64.6

59.4

56.6

55.6

61

63.8

10

62.1

57.7

55.9

53.4

58.9

61.9

11

61.2

56.5

54.2

52.8

57.6

60.3

12

59.6

54.9

52.7

51.5

56

58.9

13

58.8

54

51.5

50.4

54.7

57.7

14

57.5

52.4

48.9

47.6

53.5

56.5

15

56.4

51.1

45.9

46.7

52.3

55.3

These results are inaccurate as the starting temperatures are dissimilar. Because of this I produced a different table with all results being added-to so that the starting temperature is 90  for

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Conclusion

"c4">80.3

4

75.2

70.4

77.3

73.3

75.4

77.7

5

72.5

68.1

75.4

71.8

72.4

74.9

6

69.7

65.6

73.2

70.4

70.1

72.3

7

68.2

63.4

70.3

70.1

67.8

70.5

8

66.6

61.3

68.3

67.8

65.8

68.7

9

64.6

59.4

66.6

65.6

64

66.8

10

62.1

57.7

65.9

63.4

61.9

64.9

11

61.2

56.5

64.2

62.8

60.6

63.3

12

59.6

54.9

62.7

61.5

59

61.9

13

58.8

54

61.5

60.4

57.7

60.7

14

57.5

52.4

58.9

57.6

56.5

59.5

15

56.4

51.1

55.9

56.7

55.3

58.3

As these results show, the polythene cup covered in silver foil managed to keep the liquid hottest for the longest time. This proves my prediction. The white plastic cup came second in terms of keeping the liquid hottest.

A scatter diagram of the white plastic cup.

image00.png

A scatter diagram of the polythene cup with silver foil

image01.png

The circled points of the above graphs are anomalous results, these results do not fit in with the trend of results. This could be due to a misread temperature or perhaps the temperature was recorded not exactly on the minute.

The observations I have made are not as accurate as they could be. I could have made it a fairer test by rechecking that all results were recorded exactly on the minute. Also I could have used the digital data collectors instead of an ordinary thermometer. As further work I would like to try the polythene cup with silver foil and a lid. I feel this would vastly decrease heat loss.

Science Coursework.doc

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