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Revision notes on elements, the periodic table and compounds.

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ELEMENTS Definition: An element is the basic building block of matter that cannot be broken down further by chemical reaction (This definition was suggested by Robert Boyle). Element can be broken down ONLY by nuclear fission. So far 106 elements have been discovered. Water (H2O) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 1 oxygen & 2 hydrogen atoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 1 carbon & 2 oxygen atoms. Atmospheric oxygen (O2) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 2 oxygen atoms. Note: H2O.......... CO2....... NO2 - these are compounds Every element has: * A name (may vary in different language) - Name may be taken from their Latin name - Name may be taken after the scientist who invented them - Name may be taken after the place where they were found * A symbol (same all over the world) Element Chemical symbol Hydrogen H Calcium Ca Chlorine Cl Iron Fe (from Latin name ferrum) Lead Pb Sodium Na Helium He In Universe: Most abundant element in universe - H (hydrogen) & He (helium) Stars are made of H & He Earth's crust: Most abundant element in earth's crust - O (oxygen = 45%) & Si (silicon= 25%) Others: - Aluminium (Al) = 7% - Iron (Fe) ...read more.


Low density Malleable Brittle (less ability to withstand stress) Ductile Non-ductile (snaps easily) Sonorous Non-sonorous High melting point Low melting point USAGE OF METALS & NON-METALS: Using Metals: * Gold Shiny appearance --> used to make jewelery * Copper Doesn't react with water --> used to make water pipes & tanks (to prevent leakage due to corrosion) * Aluminium Light & resists corrosion --> used to make aircraft body * Iron Conducts heat well & has high melting point --> used for making cooking pots * Tin Resists corrosion --> used for coating food cans which are made of steel (steels is corroded by food - tin protect the steel from being corroded by food) * Silver Reflects light so well --> plated onto glass to make mirrors (Mercury is also used for this purpose) Using Non-metals: * Sulphur ? for making insecticides ? for making medicinal drugs ? for hardening rubber (in making car tyres) = Vulcanization of rubber * Hydrogen ? Used as rocket fuel ? For making margarine ? For filling weather balloons * Nitrogen ? for the formation of plant & animal proteins ? in the manufacture of fertilizers ? cooling agent in its liquid state (refrigerator) * Carbon ? for the formation of living tissues ? as a fuel ? ...read more.


Common properties of mixtures: 1. No chemical reaction takes place during the formation of a mixture * Thus little or no energy is involved (no heat/light exchange) * Eg: Air is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide, water vapour and noble gases (without any chemical reactions) 2. Mixture has the properties of the of the constituent substances * Air has the properties all its constituents (eg: helps to burn, because oxygen is present) 3. Constituents of the mixture can be mixed in any proportion by mass * Eg: the proportion (by mass) of the different gases in air is not constant --> changes with time & place 4. A mixture can be separated into its components by physical means * Some physical methods of separation are - evaporation, filtration, Distillation, crystallization, chromatography * Eg: components of different gases of air can be separated using the technique 'fractional distillation' COMPARISON Compound Mixture 1 Chemically combined Not chemically combined - just mixed 2 Different properties from its components Components retain their individual properties 3 Components combine in a fixed proportion by mass Don't have a fixed proportion 4 Components can be separated or decomposed by chemical means By physical means 5 Heat or light is produced or absorbed during formation of the compound Not 6 Can be formed by a reaction: ? combustion ? element = element ? element + compound ? compound + compound Can be formed of any combination of solids, liquids or gases = formed by physical combination 1 ...read more.

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The revision note content is to a very high standard. The candidate responds to the basic chemical concepts clearly and these would be a good aid for anyone just learning chemistry.

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The revision note content is to a very high standard. The candidate responds to the basic chemical concepts clearly and these would be a good aid for anyone just learning chemistry.

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