• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14

Revision notes on elements, the periodic table and compounds.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ELEMENTS Definition: An element is the basic building block of matter that cannot be broken down further by chemical reaction (This definition was suggested by Robert Boyle). Element can be broken down ONLY by nuclear fission. So far 106 elements have been discovered. Water (H2O) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 1 oxygen & 2 hydrogen atoms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 1 carbon & 2 oxygen atoms. Atmospheric oxygen (O2) is not an element - because it can be further broken down into 2 oxygen atoms. Note: H2O.......... CO2....... NO2 - these are compounds Every element has: * A name (may vary in different language) - Name may be taken from their Latin name - Name may be taken after the scientist who invented them - Name may be taken after the place where they were found * A symbol (same all over the world) Element Chemical symbol Hydrogen H Calcium Ca Chlorine Cl Iron Fe (from Latin name ferrum) Lead Pb Sodium Na Helium He In Universe: Most abundant element in universe - H (hydrogen) & He (helium) Stars are made of H & He Earth's crust: Most abundant element in earth's crust - O (oxygen = 45%) & Si (silicon= 25%) Others: - Aluminium (Al) = 7% - Iron (Fe) ...read more.

Middle

Low density Malleable Brittle (less ability to withstand stress) Ductile Non-ductile (snaps easily) Sonorous Non-sonorous High melting point Low melting point USAGE OF METALS & NON-METALS: Using Metals: * Gold Shiny appearance --> used to make jewelery * Copper Doesn't react with water --> used to make water pipes & tanks (to prevent leakage due to corrosion) * Aluminium Light & resists corrosion --> used to make aircraft body * Iron Conducts heat well & has high melting point --> used for making cooking pots * Tin Resists corrosion --> used for coating food cans which are made of steel (steels is corroded by food - tin protect the steel from being corroded by food) * Silver Reflects light so well --> plated onto glass to make mirrors (Mercury is also used for this purpose) Using Non-metals: * Sulphur ? for making insecticides ? for making medicinal drugs ? for hardening rubber (in making car tyres) = Vulcanization of rubber * Hydrogen ? Used as rocket fuel ? For making margarine ? For filling weather balloons * Nitrogen ? for the formation of plant & animal proteins ? in the manufacture of fertilizers ? cooling agent in its liquid state (refrigerator) * Carbon ? for the formation of living tissues ? as a fuel ? ...read more.

Conclusion

Common properties of mixtures: 1. No chemical reaction takes place during the formation of a mixture * Thus little or no energy is involved (no heat/light exchange) * Eg: Air is a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide, water vapour and noble gases (without any chemical reactions) 2. Mixture has the properties of the of the constituent substances * Air has the properties all its constituents (eg: helps to burn, because oxygen is present) 3. Constituents of the mixture can be mixed in any proportion by mass * Eg: the proportion (by mass) of the different gases in air is not constant --> changes with time & place 4. A mixture can be separated into its components by physical means * Some physical methods of separation are - evaporation, filtration, Distillation, crystallization, chromatography * Eg: components of different gases of air can be separated using the technique 'fractional distillation' COMPARISON Compound Mixture 1 Chemically combined Not chemically combined - just mixed 2 Different properties from its components Components retain their individual properties 3 Components combine in a fixed proportion by mass Don't have a fixed proportion 4 Components can be separated or decomposed by chemical means By physical means 5 Heat or light is produced or absorbed during formation of the compound Not 6 Can be formed by a reaction: ? combustion ? element = element ? element + compound ? compound + compound Can be formed of any combination of solids, liquids or gases = formed by physical combination 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classifying Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

The revision note content is to a very high standard. The candidate responds to the basic chemical concepts clearly and these would be a good aid for anyone just learning chemistry.

Read full review

Response to the question

The revision note content is to a very high standard. The candidate responds to the basic chemical concepts clearly and these would be a good aid for anyone just learning chemistry.

Level of analysis

The information contained in the revision notes are very basic but explain each topic very well. These would be very good notes indeed for anyone wanting to learn basic chemistry. The candidate covers a whole range of topics which encompasses good techniques and conveys this concisely and clearly.

Quality of writing

Punctuation, grammar and spelling are all to a high standard. Layout is great with a good sized easy to read text and clear subheadings.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by skatealexia 04/07/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classifying Materials essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Identifying an Ionic Compound. Objectives: To learn and test for metal ions ...

    5 star(s)

    In fact, three dark precipitates formed where Cu2+ had a dark precipitate on top, Fe2+ had a bronze precipitate with small black pieces and Fe3+ had a darker orange precipitate. In my fifth hypothesis I inferred that if I was testing for ammonium ions (NH4+)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The differences between the Alkali metals and the Transition metals.

    3 star(s)

    (Figure 5) As I have mentioned the alkalis are very reactive and unstable. This due to the outermost shell that is not full. This is the furthest from the nucleus so it is more easily lost. They are always trying to lose there 1 outer electron to become stable, due to this

  1. The rates of reaction between CaCO3 and HCL

    constant, the amount is 20ml of HCL and 5g of CaCO3, unlike the other variables. The surface area of the CaCO3 changes depending on the way it falls in the conical flask, the weight is calculated but the change in size of surface area may affect my results slightly.

  2. Investigating the energy change when zinc reacts with copper(II) sulphate.

    This means that it needs 4 electrons in order to become stable and in order for the zinc to do this, it has to displace the copper sulphate from its sulphate in order to produce zinc sulphate and copper. This reaction is very fast.

  1. Making magnisium carbonate (MgCO3)

    My actual yield was 1g of MgCO3 and my theoretical yield 2.1g MgCO3 Therefore percentage yield is 1 x 100 47.62% 2.1 Why the weight is less The above equations show that out of 100% yield, I got 47.62 which will mean I lost 53.38% of the yield.

  2. Determining the water of crystalisation

    I recorded the mass of crucible with salt after it cooled down. I had to repeat these activities since the mass of crucible with lid and salt was stable. I had to do that because only by this I could be sure that the whole water from the salt had evaporated.

  1. Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid according to the equation below

    This also shows the importance of taking a variety of results and repeating experiments to overcome anomalies. Results I took results for 10 different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. I then repeated the experiment twice. I noted the starting weight of the marble chips at the beginning of each experiment because it could not always be make exactly 10.00g.

  2. Gravimetric Determination of Phosphorus in Plant Food

    excessive amount of Cl?to it; this enables the formation of the insoluble precipitate AgCl which falls to the bottom of the container as a powder. The key here is that Ag+ and Cl?can?t stay in solution together ? they will come together and form AgCl, which does not stay dissolved in water, so it precipitates.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work