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To investigate the effect of change concentration on the rate of reaction between marble chips and excess hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Rate of reaction Aim:- To investigate the effect of change concentration on the rate of reaction between marble chips and excess hydrochloric acid. 1. What is rate of reaction? Rate of reaction = amount of reactant used up / amount of product formed Total Time Rate of reaction basically is the measure of a change that takes place in a single unit of time. 2. Different methods to find the rate of reaction There are different ways we can find out the rate of reaction. But in all the methods we have to either measure the product formed or the reactant used up according to the above listed formula. The first method is the Syringe method. This method can be used if one of the products formed is a gas. It is connected to the top of the conical flask when the reaction takes place to collect the gas that is formed. The total volume can be measured and can be divided by the total time taken to find the rate of reaction. The other way is to use a top pan balance. This is called the Top Pan Balance method. This measures the mass very accurately and very minutely. We have to first measure the mass of the conical flask with and without the reactants. Once the reaction starts, we can find out the loss in mass. This loss in mass is the mass of reactants used up. By calculating this from the original mass, we can find out this and divide it by the time taken to find the rate of reaction. The Reactants The reactants that will be used for this experiment are Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

So we can understand form this that since the number of ions doubles, the rate of reaction also doubles. The rate of reaction for 1.5 M will triple because it has three times the number of ions that 0.5 M has. So this proves that concentration is directly proportional to the rate of reaction. The time for the reaction to take place for the 1 M solution is half and one third for the 1.5 M solution. Calculation for volume of HCl and mass of CaCO3 Here we will use the syringe method because a gas is a product. The gas produced here is Carbon dioxide as we have already seen from the equation. The capacity of the syringe is 100cm3. So we take the volume of Carbon dioxide produced as 100 cm3 also. CaCO3(s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2(aq) + H20(l) + CO2(g) Volume of CO2 produced = 100 cm3 Moles of CO2 produced = volume 24000 moles = 100 24000 = 0.004166 moles of CO2 produced According to the equation 1 mole of CaCO3 1 mole of CO2 y moles of CaCO3 0.004166 moles of CO2 therefore that is 0.004166 moles of CaCO3 moles = mass R.F.M R.F.M of CaCO3 = 40 + 12 + 16 x 3 = 100 mass = moles x R.F.M = 0.004166 x 100 =0.416 g Now we will find out the volume of HCl required 2 moles of HCl give 1 mole of CO2 y moles give 0.004166 moles y= 2 x 0.004166 = 0.00833 moles of HCl volume of HCl = moles concentration The concentration here is 0.5 M Volume = 0.00833 0.5 Volume = 16.66 cm3 Concentration for the next will be 1 M Volume = 0.00833 1.0 Volume = 8.33 cm3 Concentration will be 1.5 M ...read more.

Conclusion

The curves show the difference. A shows the concentration of hydrochloric acid is to be 1.5 m and C shows 0.5 M. A shows the highest concentration. This we know because it takes the least time to complete the reaction and is steepest. The time taken for it to complete is denoted as T1 on the graph. B shows the concentration to be less than that of A. This is because the time taken is more than the time taken by A. The volume however was the same. It does not change, only the time changes. In this graph the time is known to be T2. T2 is twice the that of T1 so we can assume that the concentration is half of that of A. The time increases because there are not many particles to react with the calcium carbonate. C shows the concentration to be less than that of A and B. This is because the graph is not as steep and it takes more time. The time taken for it is T3. T3 is shown to be three times than that of T1. So that means that the concentration of C is one third of A. From this graph we can come to know the following. T2 = 2 x T1 T3 = 3 x T1 Observation Table Time (s) Volume of CO2 (cm3) 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 Precautions 1. There should be no parallex error while measuring the volume of acid. 2. Plunger of the syringe should be at 0. 3. Stop watch should be at 0. 4. There should be no leakage in the rubber tube before starting. 5. The acid should be handled with care. 6. The measurements related to the mass of the calcium carbonate have to be accurate. 7. Flask should be rinsed with hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

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