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To investigate the effect of concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid when it reacts with magnesium metal.

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Introduction

Catherine Thomas 10DR Year 10 GCSE Chemistry Coursework Rate of Reactions Aim: To investigate the effect of concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid when it reacts with magnesium metal. Scientific Knowledge: Concentrated acid contains many acid particles. In order for a reaction to take place acid particles must collide with magnesium atoms breaking the chemical bonds, there must also be enough energy within the reaction for them to collide; otherwise they would simply bounce off each other. A reaction that does have enough energy to create a reaction is referred to as an effective collision. Within a reaction containing a high concentration of acid, a collision between acid particles and magnesium atoms is very likely. The more collisions made, the quicker the reaction will take place. Therefore using dilute acid, as there are not as many particles, collisions between the acid particles and magnesium atoms are less likely causing the reaction to take more time. ...read more.

Middle

* Put on our safety goggles at the beginning of the experiment * We started with 1 test tube with 30cm 3 of Sulphuric Acid in it. We added a strip of magnesium ribbon and began timing the reaction * For the second test tube we measured 25cm 3 of acid and 5cm 3 of water and added them together, we then again added a magnesium ribbon and timed the reaction. * We repeated this a further four times, each time taking away 5cm3 more of acid and adding 5cm 3 more of water. I have chosen to repeat the experiment three times therefore allowing me to calculate an average. This will ensure higher accuracy for my results. Diagram: Variables: * Acid Concentration * Amount of water added * Temperature within the test tube Constants: * Total volume of acid and water when mixed together * Length of Magnesium Ribbon * Room Temperature Factors that could affect my Experiment: * Concentration of acid * Type of acid ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion: My results tell me that the test tube with the most amount of concentrated acid used was the quickest to react to the magnesium ribbon. This is because as it being the highest concentration of acid it contained the most acidic particles and as a by-product of the reaction the temperature increased. Energy built up causing particles to move around quickly, therefore colliding with atoms quickly, causing a fast reaction. This I stated in my earlier prediction. Altogether I tested 6 different concentrations of acid. The quickest to react was 30cm3 which was the most concentrated acid I used. The slowest to react was a combination of 5cm3 acid and 25cm3 water which took 15 minutes to complete the reaction with the magnesium ribbon. Evaluation: Overall I think I have made my investigation a fair test. To my best ability, I tried to accurately measure each measurement of hydrochloric acid and water. I also accurately measured the time the reaction took to the nearest second on a stop clock. The results collected were reliable as I repeated each concentration three times. ...read more.

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