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# To investigate the factors affecting the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Aim To investigate the factors affecting the rate of reaction. Prediction There are several factors that affect the rate of reaction. Each one will affect the rate in its own way. The things that influence rate are concentration, temperature, catalysts and surface area. They will all affect the rate of reaction by speeding it up not slowing the reaction down. If you double the concentration then the rate of reaction will also double. If we increase the temperature by ten degrees then the rate of reaction will double. I predict that if the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate increases then the rate of reaction will also increase meaning the cross under the beaker will disappear quicker. Also this will work the opposite way round if the concentration is lowered. This means that the graph drawn up in my analysis will have a positive correlation, and will probably be curved as the increase in rate of reaction will not be exactly the same as the concentration is increased. Scientific Knowledge The starting materials of a chemical reaction are called the reactants the finishing materials are called the products. Depending on whether the reactants change to the products quickly or slowly determines if the reaction is quick or slow. (If the reactant turns to a product slowly means it's a slow reaction and visa versa). There are many factors that can change how fast a normal reaction between chemicals occurs. ...read more.

Middle

The experiment went very well without any problems and the difficulty factor wasn't too high. Method Set up the apparatus by having a conical flask on a white piece of paper with a cross on the paper directly under the bottom of the flask. You will have to look through the solution to see the cross. Add the 5ml of hydrochloric acid solution to the 50ml of sodium thiosulphate to form sulphur. Using the stopwatch time how long it takes for they're to be enough sulphur to block the view of the cross, which is drawn on the white piece of paper, then note down the results. Repeat this experiment with the same amount of solution but vary the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate by adding extra water each time, e.g. 45ml of sodium thiosulphate, 5ml of hydrochloric acid and 5ml of water. The next recording will be the same other than 40ml of sodium thiosulphate and 10ml of water. Plot the results in a table showing the time taken for the cross to disappear under different concentrations, the concentrations will be from 45ml of sodium thiosulphate to 20ml of sodium thiosulphate topping up the solution as I mentioned in the example above for each recording. Then plot a graph that will have 1/time for the cross to disappear against the concentration. Results Sodium thiosulphate (ml) Hydrochloric acid (ml) Water (ml) Time taken (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

I think more results could have been taken so that I could have a better look at the doubling of the concentration theory; also a better average could then have been taken to level out any anomalous results. Making sure that all the equipment was clean and rinsed out could help more in the accuracy. I think if I had taken a recording of the temperature of the solution each time the experiment would have improved because then I may have be able to explain some of the anomalous results because the temperature may have been higher, this couldn't be done during my experiment. The temperature could have been a factor. To extend my investigation I could easily introduce the other factors that affect rate of reaction. An easy experiment could be to keep the same solution throughout the experiment but change the temperature of the solution. Heating up the solution and taken the recordings from that. You could then prove that temperature does or does not affect rate of reaction. Adding a catalyst would also be interesting to see what catalysts work the fastest if they work at all. All of these different experiments could then be linked together to see which of the different factors affects the rate of reaction the most. When this is done you could then mix the experiments together. E.g. Adding a catalyst and increasing the temperature, would this increase the rate of reaction even more or would they cancel each other out and only one of the factors would be an affecter? Tom Green 11px Chemistry ...read more.

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