• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5

# What affects the time period of a pendulum.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What affects the time period of a pendulum

Plan

I have been asked to investigate what affects the time period of 1 oscillation of a pendulum.

Definitions: Oscillation: Repeated motion of pendulum (to and for)
Period (T): Time taken for one full oscillation

Prediction

I predict that the longer the length of string the longer it will take the pendulum to complete one period. This is because the length of the arc, the pendulum is traveling along is greater, but the gravitational acceleration will remain the same. This prediction is also proved by the formula

Here if the length of the string is increased (L) then that side of the equation becomes larger because the size of the fraction is increasing and because one side of the equation is increasing so must the other to remain equal so T will also increase.

Hypothesis

What a pendulum is:

A pendulum is a body suspended by a fixed point so it can swing back and forth under the influence of gravity. Pendulums are frequently used in clocks because the interval of time for each complete oscillation, called the period, is constant.

The GPE (gravitational potential energy) gained after reaching its highest point in its swing, is converted into KE needed for it to return back to its natural point of vertical suspension. Due to this continuous motion, the bob creates an arc shaped swing.

Middle

To make sure our results are accurate we need to keep everything but the variable constant. Below are some simple guidelines to ensure that our testing is fair.

## Solution

Clamp Stand

Could rock

Place a heavy mass on the base to prevent this.

Mass of the bob (see note below)

If we use different bobs there mass could be different.

Make sure we use the same bob

Angle

Angle could be different due to human error

Make sure we measure the angle accurately

Gravity

If we move to another area of the world, the effects of gravity will be slightly different

Stay in the same area of the earth as much as possible.

Human error

Human error between releasing the bob and starting the stopwatch.

Make sure the same person does each task every time, use a standard pre-release method, i.e. 3,2,1, go.  We should also let the pendulum swing for ten periods and then divide by 10 to reduce the effect of human error.

Note: Although during my research I ascertained that the mass of the bob does not effect the period of the pendulum, I should still keep this constant, as I should only have one variable in my experiment.

Note: The friction on the string caused by the air will affect the results. Ideally, this experiment would be conducted in a vacuum. However, we have no equipment in school that we could use to achieve this.

Conclusion

However with the small bob with a short string it took 0.929 seconds compared to the long string which took 1.207 seconds. So obviously the length of the string affects the time. The smaller the string the bob is attached to the smaller the time it takes for a swing.

We also investigated whether the angle the ball is dropped from affects the time. With a big angle it took 12.85 secs so their was no big difference.

My prediction, based on the preliminary work is that the smaller the string the bob is attached to the smaller the time it takes for one swing. In contrast, the larger the string is, the longer the bob takes for one oscillation.

Were using a retort stand and clamp to swing the pendulum from. We will measure time for 10 ,20 ,30 ,40 , 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 7 100 cm’s length strings.

We will get 3 measurements and then average the results.

For each result we will let the pendulum swing for 10 periods and then average to eliminate human error as much as possible.

The angle will be same that we drop it from, also the weight of the bob will be the same. Were using a protractor to keep the angle the same.

We will put weights on the stand to make the results accurate.

We will not be going over 15 for the angle.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

1. ## Investigating how the Length of a Pendulum affects its Period

3 star(s)

the weight of the bob many have pulled the string down a bit or my reaction times interfered with results. The curve of the graph of the relationship between length and ten periods suggests than as length gets longer the increase of time gradually gets slightly smaller the higher it gets.

2. ## Additional Science - What affects the period of a pendulum?

3 star(s)

= 3(32-1) => 24 = 1 - (0/24) = 1 <--- As the final answer is 1; this means that there is a strong correlation. From this experiment, I found that the shorter the string the faster it took the ball bearing to complete one full oscillation.

1. ## length of a simple pendulum affects the time

4 star(s)

The blue pendulum has the most gravitational potential energy at the top of the swing because it is higher. This means the kinetic energy and hence speed through the centre will also be greater than for the red pendulum. From previous experiments I know that for trolleys running freely down

2. ## Determining the acceleration due to gravity by using simple pendulum.

Connect the release mechanism and the pad base on the floor with a timer. 3) Place the both the releaser and the receiver of the ball at a desirable length and make sure the time on the stopwatch or a digital stopwatch (or any source of a timer)

1. ## Period of Oscillation of a Simple Pendulum

However, this pattern did not emerge until after 40�. This indicates that if air resistance was the main contributing factor, then there must be a critical speed for it to reach before it will be affected by air resistance enough. The results before this virtually remained the same and alter from both positive to negative at all ends of the scale between 0� and 40�.

2. ## The determination of the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth, ...

error which arises through not being able to start and stop the watch when the pendulum is exactly in the intended position is greatly reduced." The number of oscillations I finally decided to count was not 50, as Roger Muncaster suggests, but 30.

1. ## Damped Oscillation.

Even using the magnifying glass to help the observation, I did not see any oscillation either. I recorded the time that the bob took to stop. Time (s) Time (s) 1 3.70 6 3.98 2 3.93 7 3.91 3 3.90 8 3.51 4 3.89 9 3.84 5 3.73 10 3.81 The average time is 3.82 seconds.

2. ## FACTORS AFECTING SIMPLE PENDULUM`S PERIOD

and then if they lie in a straight line then I can say that my experiment does approve the Galileo's formula. But as we saw in earlier part there might be some errors that we need to take them into account while drawing our graph and to achieve it we need to draw error boxes.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to