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X-ray report

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Introduction

X-ray report Avce Science INTRODUCTION 1 DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS 2 PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS 3 PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS IN MORE DETAIL 3 THE USES OF X-RAYS 4 TECHNIQUE 6 RISKS & COMPLICATIONS 6 Introduction X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation, in the wavelength range of 10-11 to 10-9m. X-ray is produced when a beam of high-energy electron strike a metal object anode E.g. Copper within an evacuated tube. X-ray photographs are produced when the rays pass through a specimen and on to a photographic plate (imager). It's a short wavelength and can penetrate inner tissues in the human body, which can produce images of the internal body. X-ray photography is used for diagnosing disease and the x radiation can also treat cancer. It can reveal abnormalities in the human body such as fractures, infections, and presence of foreign body. E.g. Bullets or needles. Discovery of X-rays On 8 November 1895 German born physicist Wilhelm R�ntgen discovered x-rays by mistake. This helped shape the ideas of using x-rays for medical diagnoses and cancer treatment. He was investigating the consequence of electricity discharged through gases at small pressures to generate a beam of cathode rays (or electrons). He used a vacuum tube invented by British Chemist and Physicist William Crookes. He concentrated a narrow beam of rays from the tube which was roofed in cardboard onto a screen in a dark room and noticed a dim light on a near bench, caused by fluorescence from a different screen. ...read more.

Middle

The shorter the wavelength of the X ray, the larger its energy and its penetrating power. Longer wavelengths, close to the ultraviolet-ray band of the electromagnetic spectrum, are recognized as soft X rays. The shorter wavelengths, nearer to and overlapping the gamma-ray varieties are called hard X rays. X rays are created when high-velocity electrons hit a material object. A lot of the energy of the electrons is lost in heat; the remains produces X rays by causing changes in the objects atoms as a consequence of the collision. The X rays emitted can have no further energy than the kinetic energy of the electrons that create them. Additionally, the emitted radiation is not monochromatic (composed of radiation of one wavelength) but is composed of an open range of wavelengths among a sharp, lower wavelength limit equivalent to the greatest energy of the bombarding electrons. This sort of nonstop spectrum is referred to by the German name bremsstrahlung, which means "braking," or slowing down, radiation, and is self-determining of the nature of the target. A fast-moving electron colliding against the target can have two effects: It can excite X rays of any energy up to its own energy; or it can excite X rays of particular energies, reliant on the nature of the target atom. Production of x-rays in more detail To explain x-rays production in more detail, a voltage of 100kv is placed across electrodes inside an evacuated tube. ...read more.

Conclusion

chest. The image is formed on a recording medium like the X-Ray film underneath the bed the patient lies on. This happens by the interaction of X-Rays with the silver particles present, a bit like the process of taking a photograph. In this procedure, the image is developed in a black and white picture of the area that we wanted to produce an image of. This is how you would take an x-ray image: The Patient is positioned with the suitable part of the body we want to produce an image of, on or close to the X-Ray film. X-Rays are produced from an X-Ray tube and focussed at the X-Ray film. Normally there is little or no preparation required. There is no sensitivity or pain caused by performing the test except if the part being examined is painful like with a fracture or with broken bone. Risks & Complications There are no instant hazards after performing a plain X-ray. This is because X-Rays are a form of high-energy radiation, repetitive and extreme exposure of body tissues to this radiation will eventually cause damage to the patient. This includes: * Cancer * Ionisation of cells * Damaged tissues * Leukaemia and sterility Nonetheless the standard quantity of radiation produced throughout one basic X-Ray is much less then the background radiation we receive from the atmosphere. On the other hand all effort is made to avoid contact with pregnant women. This is because X-Rays can have harmful effects on the foetus. This can be really harmful by causing abnormalities. 1 ...read more.

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