• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

X-ray report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

X-ray report Avce Science INTRODUCTION 1 DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS 2 PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS 3 PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS IN MORE DETAIL 3 THE USES OF X-RAYS 4 TECHNIQUE 6 RISKS & COMPLICATIONS 6 Introduction X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation, in the wavelength range of 10-11 to 10-9m. X-ray is produced when a beam of high-energy electron strike a metal object anode E.g. Copper within an evacuated tube. X-ray photographs are produced when the rays pass through a specimen and on to a photographic plate (imager). It's a short wavelength and can penetrate inner tissues in the human body, which can produce images of the internal body. X-ray photography is used for diagnosing disease and the x radiation can also treat cancer. It can reveal abnormalities in the human body such as fractures, infections, and presence of foreign body. E.g. Bullets or needles. Discovery of X-rays On 8 November 1895 German born physicist Wilhelm R�ntgen discovered x-rays by mistake. This helped shape the ideas of using x-rays for medical diagnoses and cancer treatment. He was investigating the consequence of electricity discharged through gases at small pressures to generate a beam of cathode rays (or electrons). He used a vacuum tube invented by British Chemist and Physicist William Crookes. He concentrated a narrow beam of rays from the tube which was roofed in cardboard onto a screen in a dark room and noticed a dim light on a near bench, caused by fluorescence from a different screen. ...read more.

Middle

The shorter the wavelength of the X ray, the larger its energy and its penetrating power. Longer wavelengths, close to the ultraviolet-ray band of the electromagnetic spectrum, are recognized as soft X rays. The shorter wavelengths, nearer to and overlapping the gamma-ray varieties are called hard X rays. X rays are created when high-velocity electrons hit a material object. A lot of the energy of the electrons is lost in heat; the remains produces X rays by causing changes in the objects atoms as a consequence of the collision. The X rays emitted can have no further energy than the kinetic energy of the electrons that create them. Additionally, the emitted radiation is not monochromatic (composed of radiation of one wavelength) but is composed of an open range of wavelengths among a sharp, lower wavelength limit equivalent to the greatest energy of the bombarding electrons. This sort of nonstop spectrum is referred to by the German name bremsstrahlung, which means "braking," or slowing down, radiation, and is self-determining of the nature of the target. A fast-moving electron colliding against the target can have two effects: It can excite X rays of any energy up to its own energy; or it can excite X rays of particular energies, reliant on the nature of the target atom. Production of x-rays in more detail To explain x-rays production in more detail, a voltage of 100kv is placed across electrodes inside an evacuated tube. ...read more.

Conclusion

chest. The image is formed on a recording medium like the X-Ray film underneath the bed the patient lies on. This happens by the interaction of X-Rays with the silver particles present, a bit like the process of taking a photograph. In this procedure, the image is developed in a black and white picture of the area that we wanted to produce an image of. This is how you would take an x-ray image: The Patient is positioned with the suitable part of the body we want to produce an image of, on or close to the X-Ray film. X-Rays are produced from an X-Ray tube and focussed at the X-Ray film. Normally there is little or no preparation required. There is no sensitivity or pain caused by performing the test except if the part being examined is painful like with a fracture or with broken bone. Risks & Complications There are no instant hazards after performing a plain X-ray. This is because X-Rays are a form of high-energy radiation, repetitive and extreme exposure of body tissues to this radiation will eventually cause damage to the patient. This includes: * Cancer * Ionisation of cells * Damaged tissues * Leukaemia and sterility Nonetheless the standard quantity of radiation produced throughout one basic X-Ray is much less then the background radiation we receive from the atmosphere. On the other hand all effort is made to avoid contact with pregnant women. This is because X-Rays can have harmful effects on the foetus. This can be really harmful by causing abnormalities. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Radioactivity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Radioactivity essays

  1. Are mobile phones harmful to our health

    those they are trying to reach Scientific research about mobile phones Research published in the journal Occupational Environmental Medicine concluded that using a mobile for more than a decade increased the risk of brain cancer. It concluded that people who had used a mobile phone for 10 years or more

  2. Should Mobile Phones be banned for under 18s?

    In this system, the violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red light we know so well has wavelengths between 400 and 700 nanometres. This range is only a small part of the entire EM spectrum, so you can tell that the light we see is just a little fraction of all the EM radiation around us!

  1. research and report

    level is depend on the albedo effect and the greenhouse effect for planets with an atmosphere and radiaton generated internally by a planet itself, the radiation emit by the planet is poportional to the temperature of the planet. A thermographic camera can detect the level of radiation and create an image depends on the intensity.

  2. Radiation: are mobile phones unsafe? Mobiles use electromagnetic radiation in order to send and ...

    Eventually, they require help with all their daily activities. The human body is designed to prevent harmful proteins and toxins in the blood from entering the brain, however radiation emissions can break down the natural barrier and enable these harmful proteins or toxins to enbed themselves into the brain.

  1. Gamma Rays

    The shorter the wavelength the greater the bandwidth. Microwaves are also used in point to point "beaming" of energy, it has been suggested that orbiting power satellites could simply "beam" the energy produced to earth based stations via microwave links.

  2. SHOULD MORE NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS BE BUILT IN BRITAIN?

    Reliability of source: quite a high reliability because it was posted on the BBC news website but was quoted from another site. The campaign is popular for having marches and anti-nuclear events which many people join. They must have some sense of honesty for other people to feel inclined to be part of their organisation.

  1. P2 Assessed Home-Learning Are Mobile Phones Harmful?

    Studies and research projects are, now, all we have to make sure of the data and findings linking mobile phones to a serious hazard to our health or not. Even if there were to be a correlation showing some very small effect it would not be regarded with high assumption and care by many people.

  2. REsearch into the dangers of sunbeds.

    This is generally felt to be more hygienic. Most modern tanning beds have not changed much from the previous systems. The lamps technology and electronics have evolved other the years, but the basic ?low pressure? tanning bed has not evolved.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work