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Biology Heart Rate Lab. What are the effects of decreasing the amount of water intake on human heart rate?

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Introduction

Design Question What are the effects of decreasing the amount of water intake on human heart rate? Hypothesis If the amount of water intake in decreased, heart rate would speed up because the volume of blood is lowered and the heart needs to work harder and faster to pump the blood to the rest of the body. Materials: A test subject Timer Water Measuring Cups Variables Independent- Amount of water consumed Dependent- Heart Rate (beats per minute) Control - 2000mL of water consumption, temperature of environment, 3 minute duration of measuring heart beats. Protocol Diagram Procedure One human test subject was found to conduct this experiment. Instructions were clearly given to the test subject to drink only the prescribe amount of water each day and to consume no other liquids. Instructions also included limiting liquids in her diet. The subject was asked to drink 2000mL of water in 500mL intervals every 2 hours on the first day. She was asked to drink 1500mL of water in 500 mL intervals every 2 hours on the second day. 1000mL in 500mL intervals every 2 hours on the third day, 500mL of water in 250mL intervals every 2 hours. She was asked to drink only 100mL of water in 50mL intervals every 2 hour. At the end of each day at 3:20, the test subject's radial pulse was counted for 3 minutes and recorded. This experiment was repeated 5 times on the same test subject. Data Collection and Processing Raw Data Tables Table 1. ...read more.

Middle

Mean, Standard Deviation and Student's T Test on the 2000mL control and the 100mL of water consumed. Amount of Water Consumed (mL � 10mL) Mean (bpm� 2 bmp) S.D (bpm) Significance level ? Degrees of Freedom T Value Critical region 100 80 2 0.05 8 2.39 T ? 2.31 2000 69 4 Conclusion and Evaluation Conclusion The results of the experiment support my hypothesis that the heart rate will increase if the amount of daily water consumption decreases. As Graph 1. shows, the heart rate was the highest at 80 bmp when the test subject only consumed 100mL of water a day and the heart rate slowly and steady decreased with every increase of water consumption to 69 bmp with 2000mL of water consumed. This increase in heart rate is due to dehydration. Dehydration causes there to be less fluid in the blood and thus a lower blood volume. In order to maintain a constant total flow of blood, the heart has to work harder and beat faster if there is less blood volume in the cardiovascular system. What would usually take one pump to circulate the blood around the body is not enough and hence, the heart has to beat more often. The overall result is an increased heart rate. The results of experiment emphasises the importance of hydration and a daily 8 cups or 2000mL of water consumption daily. A study done by S. J. Montain and Ed Coyle confirms that the heart rate does increases when a person is dehydrated and water is lost.1 Water is an important part of our daily life. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another improvement could be measuring the heart rate in a quiet environment where there are no distractions to better feel the pulse and to keep count. This would increase the accuracy of the heart beats measured. Using the carotid pulse instead of the radial pulse could also increase the accuracy because the pulse is stronger at the carotid artery and it is easier to distinguish and measure a stronger pulse. Using a heart rate monitor would solve many of the issues regarding measuring the heart rate. Handling the measuring cup with care should avoid spillage and bending down when measuring to avoid parallax. More trials could also increase the precision and reduce the effects of an outlier. Not allowing the test subject to eat a few hours before taking heart beats data could reduce the possibility of metabolism raising the heart rate. Delaying the experiment until the test subject was fully recovered from her fever and headache would also reduce the effect of those factors raising her heart rate. Eliminating outside emotional variables such as stress and anxiety could be difficult but perhaps a few minutes of meditation before measuring her heart rate could reduce the effect of those emotions raising her heart rate. It is difficult to control the experiment without controlling every aspect of the test subject's life and watching her closely for the duration of the experiment.To see the further effects of dehydration on heart rate, a further addition to the experiment could include having the test subjects exercise with varying amounts of water consumption and analyzing its effects on the heart rate and how the heart rate recovers after exercise. ...read more.

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