• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Enzyme-Substrate Specificity

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Examining the Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Enzyme Activity Harry O'Sullivan Core 3 IB SL Biology Nov. 18, 2010 -Introduction The role played by enzymes is essential to perpetuate life. Enzymes are globular proteins made up of long chains of amino acids. These specific proteins act as catalysts to accelerate chemical reactions, due to the fact that most chemical reactions in biological cells occur too slowly. However, they do not only act as catalysts. When the human body has an abundance of enzymes, it can protect itself and repair the damage from countless diseases. Thus, without enzymes, we obtain diseases earlier in life; we also age at a faster rate, and acquire physical impairments and metal retardation as our bodies' decadence. As a result, a human being or an animal cannot live without enzymatic function. Enzymes are of great importance to our wellbeing, and are essential to our survival. Examining the different factors that affect the rate of enzymatic activity is important and necessary. This is due to the fact that the rate at which enzymes work is vital to the homeostasis of a living organism. Homeostasis is crucial to a living orgasm; if the rate enzymatic activity were to happen too quickly, or too slowly, the internal balance of the organism would be distorted, which would result in harmful symptoms. -Aim The aim of this investigation is to examine whether there is a distinguishable trend between the rate of enzymatic activity and varying concentrations of substrates. Simply, How will altering the substrate concentration affect the rate at which enzymes catalyze reactions? This investigation will consist of a set-up that will allow us to accurately manipulate the substrate concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and adding the different concentrations to a controlled amount of pork liver that consists of catalase, a naturally occurring enzyme. In this case, hydrogen peroxide is the substrate. ...read more.

Middle

12. Watch the temperature that's written on the thermometer, and record the highest temperature reached before the reaction starts to cool down. 13. Repeat steps 4 to 12 four more times. 14. Repeat step 13 with four other batches of substrate solution. -Results Table 1: The maximum temperature (�0.1 ?) reached after three drops of a solution containing 30% hydrogen peroxide concentration was added to three paper discs saturated with pork liver paste Trial n Maximum Temperature after 3 drops of a solution containing 30% hydrogen peroxide substrate concentration / �0.1 ? Trial One 57.4 Trial Two 60.5 Trial Three 58.6 Trial Four 57.3 Trial Five 54.7 Table 2: The maximum temperature (�0.1 ?) reached after three drops of a solution containing 25% hydrogen peroxide concentration was added to three paper discs saturated with pork liver paste Trial n Maximum Temperature after 3 drops of a solution containing 25% hydrogen peroxide substrate concentration / �0.1 ? Trial One 57.1 Trial Two 56.7 Trial Three 57.4 Trial Four 56.9 Trial Five 57.6 Table 3: The maximum temperature (�0.1 ?) reached after three drops of a solution containing 20% hydrogen peroxide concentration was added to three paper discs saturated with pork liver paste Trial n Maximum Temperature after 3 drops of a solution containing 20% hydrogen peroxide substrate concentration / �0.1 ? Trial One 53.9 Trial Two 52.4 Trial Three 53.6 Trial Four 51.2 Trial Five 52.2 Table 4: The maximum temperature (�0.1 ?) reached after three drops of a solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide concentration was added to three paper discs saturated with pork liver paste Trial n Maximum Temperature after 3 drops of a solution containing 15% hydrogen peroxide substrate concentration / �0.1 ? Trial One 41.7 Trial Two 40.7 Trial Three 41.5 Trial Four 42.5 Trial Five 45.3 Table 5: The maximum temperature (�0.1 ?) reached after three drops of a solution containing 10% hydrogen peroxide concentration was added to three paper discs saturated with pork liver paste Trial n Maximum Temperature after 3 drops of a solution containing 10% hydrogen peroxide substrate concentration / �0.1 ? ...read more.

Conclusion

However, because of the level of inefficiency in this method, the three discs were almost always carrying different amounts of liver paste. This could have been remedied by using a much more effective way of taking liver paste out of the mortar. In the process of mixing batches of hydrogen peroxide to produce solutions containing difference substrate concentrations, drawing the solution with a syringe and injecting the fluid into another beaker may have left some of the solution behind on the sides of tubing or the syringe. Hence, the amount of substrate concentration needed for each setup may not have been exact. A method of improvement would be to find a simpler way to transfer the liquid. We came across a particular systematic error in our investigation: the thermometer. As written, the electronic thermometer used measured accurately, there was always that �0.1�C possibility of error. To remedy this issue, we could have used more expensive equipment. Measuring the temperature was a vital part of our investigation; therefore, if we had used a thermometer that was a lot more accurate than the one we used, it may have produced more precise results. The final weakness of our investigation was inevitable human error. Our experiment required liquids to be measured accurately using beakers and graduated cylinders. The only way for us to know whether a particular volume was correct or not was to confirm it ourselves by using our mere sense of sight. If our data was skewed in any way because of this possible weakness, then we could have used our eyes more efficiently. For example, if our eyes were level to the beakers, the amounts added could have been a lot more accurate. 1 All numbers in this investigation are calculated to three significant figures. Also, to make sure we collected accurate data, we decided to pursue the five-by-five method, meaning that we would test each setup a minimum of five times. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of substrate concentration on catalase activity (Biology IA)

    3 star(s)

    Thus, it is safe to conclude that the rate of catalase activity is directly proportional to hydrogen peroxide concentration - the

  2. Peer reviewed

    Enzyme Coursework. Investigation to find the effect of substrate concentration on the rate ...

    5 star(s)

    Catalase, the enzyme that will be used, is an enzyme found in nearly all living organisms and it catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The balanced equation: 2H2O2 > 2H2O + O2 The investigation will involve soaking a circular piece of paper in catalase, dropping it

  1. Browning Enzyme

    Quantitative data This table shows the percentage absorption of the 5 samples for each of the temperature measured using a colorimeter. The wavelength was 430nm as this the wavelength at this I would get the most accurate results. Percentage Absorption 2 s.f.

  2. Investigating an enzyme-controlled reaction: catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration

    As the scale on the pipettes shows the volume to the nearest mm3 the volume of the solutions that I used should be correct to the nearest mm3. The volume of gas in the test tube to start with is slightly affected by the amount which the bung is pushed

  1. Investigating the effect of pH of Hydrogen Peroxide upon the activity of Catalase

    added to a test tube and quickly a gas syringe will be connected to that test tube to measure how much oxygen is produced from the reaction between the Hydrogen Peroxide and the Catalase in the chicken liver. The measurement on the gas syringe (how much oxygen produced)

  2. How pH effects enzyme Catalase in potato cells

    The reason for them to float up it because of the oxygen catalase produced stuck to the surface of the potato and caused them to be lifted up to the surface of the solution. The temperature remained the same throughout the experiment, so it will not have caused any influence on my data.

  1. Experimental Question: What effect does substrate concentration have on the rate of enzyme activity?

    7. As the enzyme decomposes the hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water, the oxygen bubbles will be trapped between the fibres of the filter paper disk. After enough time, sufficient oxygen will accumulate to float the disk. When the disk reaches the surface, stop the timer.

  2. Bionics and Prosthetics - the future possibilities.

    In this technology, the main goal is to make the human life easier and more flexible. An amputated arm is where this technology is the most useful because of the number of signals that must be controlled (fingers, wrist, elbow and shoulder).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work