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Neurology and Behaviour. Focus question: Is there an increase in the perception and rating of disgust in females rather than males?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

QAHS YEAR 11 Gender Differences in the Perception of Disgust Neurobiology and Behaviour Kayla Jackson TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS page number 1 DESIGN 3 1.1 Defining the problem 3 * Focus / research question * Hypothesis * Background information / theory * Investigation Variables 1.2 Controlling Variables 4 * Treatment of Controlled Variables * Control Experiment 1.3 Experimental Method 4 * Materials * Risk Assessment * Method 2 DATA COLLECTION and PROCESSING 5 2.1 Recording Raw Data * Quantitative Data * Qualitative Data 2.2 Processing Raw Data 6 * Statistical Processing - calculations 2.3 Presenting Processed Data 6 * Result (s) table (s) * Graph (s) * Graph (b) 3 CONCLUSION and EVALUATION 8 3.1 Conclusion * Conclusion statement * Conclusion explanation 3.2 Evaluation Procedures 9 * Reliability * Limitations / Weaknesses / errors in Laboratory Investigation * Significance of weaknesses on experimental results 3.3 Improving the Investigation 10 * Modifications to experiment BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 APPENDIX 12 Appendix One: Curtis et al, 2004. Paired disgust sensitivity stimuli and average disgust scores Appendix Two: Disgust Sensitivity by age and gender (Curtis et al. 2004) Appendix Three: QAHS STUDENT ACTVITY RISK ASSESSMENT and PRAC ORDER FORM Appendix Four: Participant Consent Form Appendix Five: Risk Assessment for research using human participants Appendix Six: Survey for Participants 1 DESIGN 1.1 Defining the problem Focus question: Is there an increase in the perception and rating of disgust in females rather than males? Hypothesis: If disease related pictures are shown to a female participant they will rate it higher, in terms of disgust than the male participants. Background Information: Disgust is a powerful human emotion that is signalled by the presence of certain olfactory or visual stimuli. Odour molecules possess a large variety of features and due to this they excite specific receptors more or less strongly. These signals are then combined by the different receptors in order to create what individuals perceive as smell. ...read more.

Middle

4 3 4 5 4 12 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 13 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 14 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 15 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 5 2 16 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 5 2 17 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 19 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 3 3 2 20 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 Processing Raw Data: Statistical Analysis Formulae Sample Calculation Mean 2.2+3.1+3.8+3.2+4.1 = 3.1 5 Standard Deviation S= V(2.2+3.1+3.8+3.2+4.1)-(3.1) 5-1 2.2 Presenting Processed Data Results Table Table 5: The Average Disgust Rating per Picture for Male and Female Participants Gender Image Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Male 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.8 2.0 1.8 1.1 3.2 1.7 1.3 1.2 2.2 2.2 1.0 1.1 2.1 1.5 Female 1.6 2.1 1.2 1.3 1,2 2.7 3.2 2.3 2.0 2.0 3.3 1.2 1.6 2.1 1.9 2.4 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.2 Results Graph(s) Graph 1: Comparison of Male and Female Disgust Responses This graph displays the different disgust response between male and female participants for the same set of pictures. The standard deviation of each genders response for the images is also displayed on the graph in order to show the deviation of the data and the large spread of results. The large standard deviation indicates that the participants' results varied a great deal and gives the impression that the personal experiences and opinions of the participants interfered with the results and caused variance in data. As such it was decided that an Area Graph would allow for a better interpretation of data, merely based on the averages. ...read more.

Conclusion

The data collected only shows the participant's ratings from one to five, and therefore does not allow for more precise ratings of each image. Also by conducting the survey in a lesser controlled environment, distractions may have affected their individual disgust responses. The presence of the experimenter may have also had an impact on their responses as it may have caused the participants to feel anxious with their presence and caused them to feel pressured for time. As such the participants may have attempted to complete the survey as quickly as possible neglected their true disgust rating for the quickest. The environments in which the investigation was conducted in were not adequately controlled and this may allow possible unknown variables to impact the results. This experiment can be found to lack in validity as there are too many unidentifiable variables, such as human error and individual personality factors which may have the ability to affect the results. 3.3 Improving the Investigations Modifications to Experiment In order to improve this experiment, variables that were found to be uncontrolled will need to be either monitored or controlled as much as possible to allow for accurate data to be collected. This could be made possible by testing the participants disgust responses in a quiet room in which they would be left alone to rate the images. It would be necessary to also try and maintain that all participants had the same exposure to the images in the survey prior to testing. This could be made possibly by enquiring as to their parent's profession, any phobias they may possess, what they wish to be once they are older or their current profession in combination with information regarding their current physical health, as illness may make the participant more susceptible to feeling disgust. It would also be necessary to get a larger sample, possibly from different schools as this would allow for the results to be able to be generalised to a larger population sample. 3. ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

*****
An excellent investigation in to the differing rates of disgust with males and females.
The introduction gave some excellent scientific information into the evolutionary and environmental factors that can influence disgust and why this might be different between males and females.
The data was collected and analysed thoroughly with an excellent conclusion using the data to support the hypothesis.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 22/05/2013

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