• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The effect of Pectinase Concentraton on the production of apple juice

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The effect of Pectinase concentration on the production of apple juice The aim of this experiment is to see the effect different Pectinase concentrations have on the production on apple juice. Pectinase is an enzyme which breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. This enzyme is mainly commercially used to speed up the process of fruit juice production as the cell walls of plants are broken down more quickly. Therefore by changing the Pectinase concentrations, the results may show the effects it may have on how much apple juice will be produced. Hypothesis: As the concentration of the Pectinase increases in concentration, there will be more apple juice produced. However, after a certain amount of Pectinase concentrate, the volume and intensity of apple juice produced would not increase anymore because there is a limit of active sites in the Pectinase for the pectin in the cell walls of the apple to react with and therefore the apple juice produced will not increase further. Null Hypothesis: As the concentration of the Pectinase increases there will be no change in the volume or intensity of apple juice produced. Variables: Independent - The concentration of Pectinase (1, 2, 3, 4, 5%) The different concentrations of enzyme will be used to determine whether or not they have an effect on the production of apple juice. ...read more.

Middle

However, there will be inevitable errors with data collection as measuring equipments, such as the measuring cylinder, which has uncertain degrees of accuracies and should be taken into account when processing the data. Goggles* Labels Beakers Pectinase Concentrates (1,2,3,4,5%) Apples Peeler, Knife and tile Grater Scale Measuring Cylinders pH 7 buffer Stopwatch Glass rod Water Bath (50�C) Funnel Muslin cloth [*Goggles should be worn at all times during the process of the experiment] Method: 1. Gather apparatus and label the beakers with the different Pectinase concentrations 2. Peel the apple and grate 50g into each beaker. (remove excess apple juice that is produced) 3. Measure 20ml of pH 7 buffer and 30ml of concentration 4. Pour liquids into appropriate beaker and start timing. Stir for 30seconds with glass rod 5. Place the beaker in the water bath for 10 minutes 6. Filter the juice from each beaker into measuring cylinders with funnel and Muslin cloth. Then remove Muslin cloth and funnel with the apple pulp after 2 minutes. Record amount of Apple Juice produced in table as seen in fig. 1. 7. Repeat 3-6 with different concentrations Concentration of Pectinase (%) Volume of Apple Juice (ml) [� 0.1 ml] Average Volume of Apple Juice (ml) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 1 49 50 48 49 2 51 51 50 50.6 3 55 52 51 52.6 4 57 56 42 51.6 5 60 50 54 54 Fig 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

This may be because there were many other factors that were unavoidable such as human errors, time constraints and insufficient skills in measuring as well as the degree of accuracy of the equipment. Conclusion Overall, the experiment was quite successful as only one anomaly was found in trial 3 which caused the results to be inaccurate. The causes of it was understood and could be avoided next time if it were to be repeated and enabled a improvement and proved as a positive effect. The anomaly did not have a great impact on the results as well because the overall trend of the graph did support the hypothesis and if the anomaly did not occur it could have been quite accurate. To improve on this experiment however, some of the errors mentioned should be avoided so that the results would be even more accurate. Some errors are also more easily avoided than others and therefore more manageable but other errors such as time constraints would require more preparation and human errors would be more difficult to control so these errors may be exempted. Another improvement can be to increase the range of concentrations used so that the accuracy of the hypothesis can be further dis/proven. One last additional suggestion can be to record the rate of reaction as well which means the amount of apple produced can be taken out to measure in time intervals and would give a greater variety of results to analyze. Tisha Yap 6C2 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay


**
The practical procedure and data collection in this investigation are good. The graph produced shows positive correlation to support the hypothesis and with an increased range of concentrations may have fully supported the hypothesis if a plateau were seen on the graph at a certain concentration.
However the scientific theory was, at times, used sparingly and incorrectly as I have explained in the comments. Remember within prose 'pectinase' does not need to be capitalised.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 22/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Osmosis Internal Assessment (Biology)

    4 star(s)

    Label the test tube rack: "immersion duration of 5 hours". 10. Repeat steps 3 to 9 4 times with a label for 4 hours, 3 hours, 2 hours, and 1 hour accordingly, in descending order (label the first repeat 4 hours, the second repeat 3 hours, the third repeat 2 hours, and the final repeat 1 hour).

  2. Photosynthesis and Light intensity

    + H2O(l) ( C6H12O6(s) + O2(g) In order to break the molecules of water and carbon dioxide,light energy is required This is carried out through a series of reaction controlled by enzymes. Oxygen is released from the splitting of the water,that combines with carbon dioxide to from glucose.Therefore, more the

  1. Vitamin C concentration

    Type of equipment- each measurement was carried out using the same apparatus. Example: the DCPIP solution was measured using only one same pipette throughout the experiment 4) State of the decolourisation- as the experiment bases visual aspects, one sample of decolourised DCPIP was used as the basic one and

  2. Browning Enzyme

    occurs at warm temperatures when the pH is between 5.0 and 7.0. 3The reduction in browning is dependent on the type of substance and its concentration, soaking in water is all that is needed however, sucrose solution in this case was more desirable.

  1. To investigate the amount of protein present in different types of milk by measuring ...

    Almost milk contain casein, but the soya milk is a special kind of milk. This is formed from soy bean. Almost protein present in soy milk is soy protein, thus the soya milk contain very little casein or has lack of casein.

  2. The Effect of Temperature on the Vitamin C Content of Lemon Juice

    juice required to turn the DCPIP colourless indicating a large decrease in the vitamin C content of lemon juice as the temperature increases. Ascorbic acid, or Vitamin C, is a naturally occurring compound, its structure is illustrated in the diagram on the left.

  1. An experiment to determine the effect of caffeine on heart rate

    Therefore the uncertainties will remain the same. The temperature of the energy drink The energy drink will remain in room temperature throughout the experiment and will be stored in the same room. METHOD:- Apparatus ? Measuring cylinder Stopwatch Bison energy drink (1880 ml)

  2. Investigating the Effects of Salt on Seed Germination

    EXPERIMENTAL PLAN Materials/Equipment: * 5 mL NaCl 0.5% solution * 5 mL NaCl 1% solution * 5 mL NaCl 1.5% solution * 5 mL NaCl 2% solution * 5 mL NaCl 2.5% solution * 1x Measuring Tube * 5x Petri-Dishes with lids * 50x Cress seeds * 1x Desk *

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work