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What is the effect of increasing pH concentration (pH 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) on the germination and growth of mustard seeds?

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Introduction

Acid Deposition Research question: What is the effect of increasing pH concentration (pH 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) on the germination and growth of mustard seeds? Background Information Acid rain is caused by the presence of SOâ, NOâ which mixes with the atmospheric gases and in the soil which is emitted by human activities such as mining. Acid rain has a pH which is lower than 5.6 which harms the soil and affects the growth rate. Natural rain has a pH of about 5.6 or above. The soil seeps the acidic water and affects the roots. Poor root growth will affect the strength of the plant and the amount of protein content in the plant reduces. Mustard seeds germinate fast and mature very quickly. For quicker growth of mustard seeds, a neutral pH is required which increases the germination rate. Hypothesis Acid rain will reduce the germination and growth rate of mustard seeds and prevent the germination of seeds. The Lower the pH, the greater the reduction in growth rate.1 Variables:- Table-1 – Dependent and independent Independent pH of HâSOâ acid solution. It is used as stimulated acid rain. Dependent Length of root (cm) Number of leaves Color of leaves Length of stem(cm) Table -2 Controlled variables , their effect on the experiment and how to control them. Controlled variables Effect on the experiment Method of controlling variables Temperature The enzyme inside the seeds will react differently when kept in different temperatures. ...read more.

Middle

Table 6 - Length of root, shoot and no of leaves at pH 3 Length of root ( + or ? 1cm) Length of stem (+ or ? 1cm) Number of leaves(+ or -1) Color of leaves Day 1 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 - - - Day 3 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.7 20 Green Day 5 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.8 24 Green Day 7 3.0 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 28 Green Table 7 - Length of root, shoot and no of leaves at pH 7 Length of root (+ or ? 1cm) Length of stem (+ or ? 1cm) Number of leaves(+ or -1) Color of leaves Day 1 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 - - - Day 3 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.5 22 Green Day 5 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.0 25 Green Day 7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore all the seeds had the same conditions to germinate and develop their features. * A ruler measuring in mm was used to measure the growth of all the seeds. Therefore the growth of all the seeds measured was accurate. Limitations * Although a ruler was used to measure the growth of the seeds in mm, a few seeds got disturbed from their position which led to inaccuracy of the data. * The seeds should be kept in a bigger container. This will ensure the spacing between the seeds is sufficient enough and the seeds do not get disturbed while measuring their growth. * Volume of the cotton kept in petridishes were not equal in volume. This might create uneven competition for water absorbtion by the seeds for germination. Suggested improvement * Weight of the seeds should be measured before starting the experiment so that the seeds can absorb the same amount of water. * Inaccuracies can be seen in the measurement of pH as pH paper was used to measure pH of each solution. pH meter should be used for correct measurement of pH in each solution. * Volume of the cotton should be weighed and equal volume of the cotton should be placed on each petridish for fair result. Bibliograpy * "Effects of Acid Rain." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013. * "Review of the Literature on the Topic of Acidic Deposition on Stone (1998-09)." NCPTT. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. * Rutherford, Jill. Environmental Systems and Societies. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. Print ...read more.

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