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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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  1. The Molar Volume of a Gas

    Raw Data: Lenght of the whole Magnesium Ribbon: 64 cm. Mass of the whole Magnesum Ribbon: 0.81 g. Temperature of the lab: 220 C (295 K) Vapor pressure at 220 C : 2.6447 Trial 1: Lenght of Magnesium ribbon used: 2.2 cm Mass of Magnesium Ribbon used: 0.02784375 g. Volume of H2(after the reaction): 29.5 cm3 Volume of MgCl2(aq): 20.5 cm3 Volume of H2(in the big beaker, 1 atm) : 29.1 cm3 Volume of MgCl2(aq)(in the big beaker): 20.9 cm3 Trial 2: Lenght of Magnesium ribbon used: 2.2 cm Mass of Magnesium Ribbon used: 0.02784375 g. Volume of H2(after the reaction): 29.0 cm3 Volume of MgCl2(aq): 21.0cm3 Volume of H2(in the big beaker, 1 atm)

    • Word count: 765
  2. Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

    Bubbles are formed and CO2 gas is produced and the reaction started to make sound. There was also water vapor formed. White NaHCO3 started to turn into a colorless liquid after adding HCl. As the reaction takes place water is started to form. NaCl was dissolved in water, so salty water is heated to obtain NaCl. As the liquid is heated it turned into a yellowish color for a few seconds. Then it started bubbling and water vapor is formed.

    • Word count: 663
  3. Energetics Design Lab

    Hydrochloric Acid: Na2CO3 + 2HCl --> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2 1) Pour 50cm3 of HCl into the copper cup and place the copper cup in the Styrofoam cup 2) Measure the initial temperature of the acid 3) Hold the weighing boat with sodium carbonate (2.65g) in one hand and the lid to the copper cup in the other. At once quickly put the sodium carbonate in the acid and place the lid on immediately. 4) Stir and keep an eye on the thermometer until the temperature has reached the peak and measure that temperature 5)

    • Word count: 1866
  4. Precipitate Lab

    Wait until all the liquid is gone from the filter, then remove the filter paper and place it on the watch glass. 7. Place the watch glass into the oven to dry the precipitate. 8. After the precipitate is dry, weigh the filter paper and precipitate. 9. Using the mass of the precipitate, calculate which factor is limiting in the experiment. Data Collection Qualitative for reacting Strontium Chloride with water and Copper (II) Sulphate: * Water goes a light blue, like the copper powder * Crystals have expanded, they look fluffy, forming precipitate, blueish in colour Qualitative results when

    • Word count: 704
  5. alkali titration

    1 * When two drops of phenolphthalein was added to the sodium hydroxide solution, the solution turned pink. * After adding about 20dm3 of oxalic acid solution, while swirling the conical flask gently, each drop of oxalic acid solution began to turn the pink solution slightly clear. * After about 20.6dm3 oxalic acid solution was added, the pink solution turned completely clear. 2 * Two drops of phenolphthalein was added to sodium hydroxide solution, producing a pink coloured solution. * After about 20dm3 of oxalic acid solution was added, each drop began turning the pink solution slightly clear.

    • Word count: 2392
  6. Iodine Clock

    The five mixtures differ only in the concentration of iodide ions. Water is added to keep the total volume of solution constant, so the concentration of everything else is the same in each mixture. You can place the potassium iodide, sodium thiosulphate, starch and ( for later mixtures ) distilled water straight into a beaker using a measuring cylinders. Measure out potassium peroxodisulphate(VI) solution ( CARE Harmful. Oxidiser ) into a separate container, such as a test tube. 3)

    • Word count: 1353
  7. IB Chemistry - Boyle's Law Lab Report

    Pressure with 7% of uncertainty = The total pressure on the piston equals the pressure from the books plus the atmospheric pressure + Pressure(mass of book/area) = 1034 + 251*? of book �(1034+251*? of book)*0.07 = 1034 + 251*1�(1034+251*1) *0.07 = 1285 �90.0g/cm� 8. % of uncertainty on Volume = 0.5/measured volume*100 = 0.5/36*100 = �1.39% (each volume has their own % of uncertainty) 9. Absolute uncertainty = 36*1.39/100 = � 0.500 10. Pressure*Volume = k(constant) = (1034 + 251*?

    • Word count: 1402
  8. IB Chemistry - Charles' Law Lab Report

    % of uncertainty on constant = % of uncertainty on temperature + % of uncertainty on height = 2 + 2 = 4% 9. Absolute uncertainty on constant = constant*% of uncertainty on constant = 0.014*4% = 5.6*10?-4 Temperature (�0.5?) Kelvin (K) % of uncertainty on temperature (%) Absolute uncertainty on temperature (�?) 24 (room temperature) 297 2 0.48 82 (right after boiling water) 355 0 0 72 345 0 0 62 335 0 0 52 325 0 0 42 315 1 0.42 32 305 2 0.64 22 295 2 0.44 12 285 4 0.48 Temperature (�0.5?) Height (�0.05cm)

    • Word count: 1514
  9. Evidence of Chemical Reactions Lab

    4 Cu(NO3)2 (blue liquid) Zn (silver metal) � the zinc blackens � still black � small bubbles on it � liquid more turquoise than before � liquid now a deep turquoise 5 NaOH (clear liquid) Cu(NO3)2 (blue liquid) The latter was diluted with water until barely blue anymore � turns bright blue � becomes cloudy with bluish particles � more viscous � still blue � cloudiness settles to 3/4 � still viscous � still blue � cloudiness settles to 1/2 � still very viscous - when tilted, the cloudiness barely moves: Data Processing Balanced Equations: Test 1: This is a double displacement reaction.

    • Word count: 1020
  10. Hydration Lab

    [g] - [b] = 0.96* � 0.11 [i] Mass of water evolved (g) [c] - [g] = 0.44* � 0.11 * these values do not actually have this much precision, but what is calculated is left for further accuracy in calculations Data Processing How many moles of water were there in the sample? 0.44 � 0.11 g H2O � 1 mol H2O = 18.02g H2O How many moles of Copper[II] Sulfate were there in the sample? 0.96 � 0.11 g CuSO4 � 1 mol CuSO4 = 159.60g CuSO4 Based on this data, what is the water of hydration?

    • Word count: 1111
  11. lab report: the hardness of water

    Materials: burette, conical flask, ring clamp and stand, 25cm3 of O.O2M EDTA solution, 50 cm3 of Vittel, Contrex and tap water, 12 cm3 of pH 10 buffer solution, 2cm3 of Murexide indicator Variables Independent Variables: the amount of EDTA solution needed to change the color of the indicator, the time needed to change the color of the indicator Dependent variables: the concentration of magnesium and calcium ions in water Procedure 1.

    • Word count: 425
  12. Lab report: the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction

    Add 25cm3 of 0.2mol dm-3 of potassium iodide solution(KI), 35cm3 of 0.1mol-3 potassium peroxodisulphate(K2S2O3) solution, 20cm3 of 0.01mol-3 sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3)

    • Word count: 332
  13. Investigating Pressure Laws

    Prediction: as the temperature cools down in this experiment, we expect to see the pressure readings decrease gradually. Independent variable: temperature of the water bath, as it is altered throughout the experiment in Degrees Celsius. Dependent variable: Pressure, as it is the variable that is being measured in kPa. Controlled variables: the type of gas in the flask is kept the same and the rubber bung was never removed from the flask once the experiment had been started. The volume of the gas sample and the number of molecules it contains is kept constant. Materials and Methods: Diagram of Setup: Apparatus: pressure sensor, temperature probe, flask with rubber bung, water bath (large beaker), ice blocks, hot water from kettle.

    • Word count: 1493
  14. Thermometric titration lab

    25.7 � 0.1 28.0 6.0 � 0.1cm3 60 � 0.15s 26.8 � 0.1 30.0 8.0 � 0.1cm3 80 � 0.15s 27.0 � 0.1 28.0 10. 0 � 0.1cm3 100 � 0.15s 26.9 � 0.1 26.0 12.0 � 0.1cm3 120 � 0.15s 26.8 � 0.1 24.0 14.0 � 0.1cm3 140 � 0.15s 26.7 � 0.1 20.0 16.0 � 0.1cm3 160 � 0.15s 26.5 � 0.1 18.0 18.0 � 0.1cm3 180 � 0.15s 26.3 � 0.1 16.0 20.0 � 0.1cm3 200 � 0.15s 26.1 � 0.1 Processed Data: Total amount HCl added (cm3)

    • Word count: 1202
  15. determining the empirical of magnesium oxide

    magnesium in order to form magnesium oxide, this can be done by just finding the difference between the values of the two masses, like shown below. Mass of Magnesium: 0.17g(�0.01 g) Mass of Magnesium oxide: 0.30g(�0.01 g) Mass of oxygen = (Mass of Magnesium oxide - Mass of Magnesium) = (0.30 - 0.17) = 0.13g Mass of oxygen = 0.13g Now that we know that the mass of the oxygen involved in the reaction we can calculate the empirical formula of magnesium oxide, by doing the following procedure.

    • Word count: 808
  16. MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF A VOLATILE LIQUID-Lab report

    ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: In order to calculate the number of moles of gas present in the flask we can use the law of ideal gases which is expressed with the following equation: Which can be rearranged in order to have as the subject, as shown below. Where is pressure, is volume, is temperature, is a constant and is the number of moles of the gas.

    • Word count: 593
  17. Fractioanl Distillation

    * When the temp. starts almost constant collect the condensed liquid, save it in a test tube. (around 50o) * When the temp. begins to raise again taking temp. reading every 30 seconds. Keep heating the mixture. * When it gets constant again collect the liquid and keep it another test tube. (around 70o) * Then increase the degree to 6o. And collect the consented liquid around 80o . * Then collect the last liquid around 95o. Conclusion: * Test the volatility of each fraction of liquid collect at 4 different tubes.

    • Word count: 518
  18. Synthesis of FeS

    Then take a little bit sulfur and put in into water. Observe what you see. Sulfur dissolves in water. 4. After that put the iron filings and rest of sulfur in a test tube and mix well. 5. Hold the test tube with the holder in inclined position, and heat gently. Take away the burner as soon as the mixture starts to glow. When reaction stops, heat it strongly for two more minutes.

    • Word count: 453
  19. How Do Acids React With Metals

    Take six test tubes, write numbers on them. 2. Put Al in 1 and 4, Zn in 2 and 5, and Cu in 3 and 6. 3. Use the dropper drop some Hydrochloric acid in tube 1, 2 and 3.

    • Word count: 332
  20. Popcorn Lab

    = ?0.0002 ? 0.01414 ? 0.01 g Mass of popped kernels Mass of flask, oil and popped corn - Flask and oil = 105.43g- 103.40g = 2.03g Volume of popcorn Volume of water and corn- volume of water = 6.80mL- 4.90mL =1.90mL Volume of popcorn in litres = (Volume of popcorn in ml) / 1000 = (1.9 ml � 0.01 ml) / 1000 = 0.0019 L Mass of Water Lost Mass of flask, oil, and unpopped popcorn- Mass of flask oil and popped popcorn 105.74g - 105.43g = 0.310g Moles of water lost moles = Mass of water Molar mass

    • Word count: 1107
  21. Enthalpy change

    Also I weighted the ice I was going to put in the water. m= mass of ice- mass of ice in the paper= 25g - 7.1 g = 17.9 g of ice 1 mole - 18g X - 17.9g X= 0.99 moles Than, I started the experiment. Table1: The measurements of the temperature change for the first reaction. Time [�0.50 s] Temperature [�0.05�C] 0.00 59.80 30.00 38.00 60.00 33.50 90.00 30.90 120.00 31.20 150.00 31.30 180.00 31.40 210.00 31.40 240.00 31.40 270.00 31.50 300.00 31.50 330.00 31.60 360.00 31.60 390.00 31.70 420.00 31.80 Rounded to 2 decimal place Later on, the graph was plotted.

    • Word count: 1497
  22. What is the rate equation of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid?

    Trial Two Volume of Na2S2O3 /cm3 Volume of water /cm3 Volume of HCl /cm3 Time /s 50 0 10 55.4 40 10 10 73.3 30 20 10 95.2 15 35 10 382.7* 5 45 10 793.3 *old batch of sodium thiosulphate Because of lack of time, we had to take the initial trials of the two other groups and use them as our other trials. Our group conducted the second trial. Trial One Volume of Na2S2O3 /cm3 Volume of water /cm3 Volume of HCl /cm3 Time /s 50 0 10 66.6 40 10 10 64.6 30 20 10 74.3 15

    • Word count: 1066
  23. Factors of a reaction lab

    Variables size of test tube- we used the same test tube for most of the trials syringe type- we used the same syringe for all the trials timer- we used the same timer for all the trials mass of zn- we kept the mass of zn constant 1.00g size of the stopper- we used the same stopper Procedure 1. Grab a test tube rack, a test tube, a stopper that fits snuggly into the test tube and a syringe. 2.

    • Word count: 1174
  24. Determining an enthalpy change of reaction

    Put the thermometer through the hole in the lid, stir and record the temperature to the nearest 0.1 ?C every half minute for 21/2 minutes. 4. At precisely 3 minutes, add the zinc powder to the cup. 5. Continue stirring and record the temperature for an additional 4 minutes to complete a copy of Results Table 2.1. Time/s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 Temperature/?C Time/s 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 ? Temperature/?C Results Table 2.1 6.

    • Word count: 1109
  25. Ionic and Molecular Compounds Lab

    a. ionic b. molecular c. acid d. base Observations: Substance Formula with state Litmus (B-R or R-B...) pH Test Conducts electricity? (Yes/No) Other qualitative observations boric acid H3BO3(aq) B-R 4 yes Clear liquid Phosphoric acid H3PO4(aq) B-R 1 yes Clear liquid sodium hydroxide NaOH(aq) R-B 12 yes Clear liquid Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH(aq) B-B R-R 7 yes Clear liquid Copper (II)sulphate+ pentahydrate +water CuSo4.5H2O+H2O(aq) B-B R-R 8 yes Blue in color, transparent Sodium chloride+ water NaCl+H2O(aq) B-B R-R 7 yes Clear liquid Glucose+ water C6H12O6+H2O(aq) B-B R-R 7 no Clear liquid Silicon dioxide (silica)+ water SiO2+H2O(aq) B-B R-R 6 no Clear liquid Unknown2 / B-R 4 no Clear liquid Unknown3 / B-B R-R 7 yes Clear liquid Unknown4

    • Word count: 687

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