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Analysing the behaviour of acids.

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Introduction

WHAT ARE ACIDS? Safety notes: Sodium hydroxide is corrosive if in contact with the skin. It is particularly dangerous in the eyes, even in the most dilute solutions. Always wear eye protection. Copper (II) oxide is harmful to the skin, eyes and lungs and toxic. Always wear eye protection. * Reaction of acids with alkalis (soluble bases) Measure approximately a 2 cm depth of an acid of your choice into a test tube and add two drops of universal indicator solution. Record the temperature of the solution and note it down. Add the alkali drop-wise until a change in colour of the indicator is seen. Test the temperature of the final solution. Repeat the reaction but with a different acid. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) � NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) H+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- � Na+ + Cl- + H2O H+(aq) + OH-(aq) � H2O t1= 24� t2= 27� t=3� number of drops: 38 CH3COOH (aq) ...read more.

Middle

Notice any visible reaction. Repeat the reaction with more acids and copper (II) oxide, noting your observations. CuO (s) + 2HCl (aq) � CuCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) CuO + 2H + + 2Cl - � Cu2+ + 2Cl- + H2O CuO is a black powder and HCl is colourless solution. After putting copper (II) oxide in the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and warming it up, the change of colour of the solution could be observed. The colour of the solution was green/blue. CuO (s) + 2CH3COOH (aq) � (CH3COO)2Cu(aq) + H2O (l) CuO + 2CH3COO- + H+ � 2CH3COO- + Cu2+ + H2O CuO is a black powder and CH3COOH is colourless solution. After putting copper (II) oxide in the aqueous solution of ethanoic acid and warming it up, the change of colour of the solution could be observed. The colour obtained was dark blue. * Ammonia as a base Carefully add 1 cm3 of concentrated ammonia solution (corrosive) ...read more.

Conclusion

Universal indicator Add two drops of universal indicator solution th the hydrogen chloride solution and note any changes that you see After using indicator in the hexane solution no changes could be observed. Anhydrous sodium carbonate Add 1 level spatula of anhydrous sodium carbonate to the hydrogen chloride solution and note any changes that you see After placing anhydrous sodium carbonate in the hexane solution, no changes could be observed. Electrical conductivity Using the apparatus provided, place two graphite electrodes into the solution of hydrogen chloride in the anhydrous solvent and test for the electrical conductivity. Try to interpret the results in terms of the types of particles that must be present within teh solution. In hexane solution the hydrogen and chlorine are locked together, a single neutral molecule and no charged ions. Any positive movement of the hydrogen is locked to the negative movement of the chlorine, so any movement balances out to zero charge movement and zero electrical movement In the given experiments concerning hexane solution no change could be observed as hexane does not dissociate. ?? ?? ?? ?? Gracja Kowalska 2 IB 1 ...read more.

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