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rate of evaporation

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Introduction

RESEARCH QUESTION How does different type of liquids affect the rate of evaporation of the liquids? HYPOTHESIS The stronger the intermolecular force, the slower the rate of evaporation Hydrochloric acid is the acid with the lowest rate of reaction compared to the other two acids, phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. This is because HCl is a strong acid. It dissociates easily in water to form hydrogen and chloride ions. Strong acid means that HCl has strong covalent bond. So, it requires a lot of energy to break the bonds between the hydrogen and chloride ions. VARIABLES 1. Manipulated variable: types of solution used ; HCl [0.1 mol) , H3PO4 [0.1], H2SO4 [0.1] 2. Responding variable: time taken for the solution to evaporate 3. Controlled variable: 1) volume af the acid * Only a little acid is needed as it have a strong intermolecular forces. ...read more.

Middle

3. Quickly, put the evaporating dish on the water bath machine, and start taking the time until the 1ml acid fully evaporates using the stopwatch. 4. Record the time taken for the acid to evaporate. 5. Repeat the experiment one more time to get average reading. 6. Then, repeat steps 1 until 5 by using H2SO4 and H3PO4 instead of HCl. 7. Tabulate the data in a table. DATA COLLECTION a) Qualitative data * The solution become less from time to time * Solution of sulphuric acid evaporates fastest * The last solution to evaporates is hydrochloric acid b) Quantitative data Type of solution, 1.0 � 0.1 ml Time taken for the solution to evaporate, �0.5 s First Second HCl (0.1 mol) 47.0 48.0 H3PO4 (0.1 mol) 40.3 42.4 H2SO4 (0.1 mol) 35.4 35.1 Table 2: time reading for the solution to evaporates DATA PROCESSING Average = Solution, 0.1 mol � 0.1ml Average time (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

It takes a long time for the solution to fully vaporised. 3. Other factors also affect the rate of evaporation. Suggestion 1. Put some coloured liquid so that it is easily to be seen or take the mass fot a certain time as the main measurement instead of taking time as the measurement. 2. Increase the surface area of the exposed petri dish to the water vapour. 3. Air movement also affect the rate of evaporation. So, that lid of the water bath should be closed in order to the control only one factor, that is temperature. CONCLUSION Hydrochloric acid is the acid with the lowest rate of reaction compared to the other two acids, phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid. This is because HCl is a strong acid. It dissociates easily in water to form hydrogen and chloride ions. Strong acid means that HCl has strong covalent bond. So, it requires a lot of energy to break the bonds between the hydrogen and chloride ions. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted. ...read more.

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