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IB GR4 Project / Global Warming

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

IB SCIENCE GROUP 4 PROJECT GLOBAL WARMING Does acid rain cause hardness in water? Does carbon dioxide affect plant growth? Is there a difference between the convection current of acid rain and distilled water? Ali Ercing�z Burcu Erdogan Deniz Kiratlioglu Can Atalay Ege Zorlu Arman Onart Subjects and Group Members Chemistry: (Ali Ercing�z, Can Atalay) Does acid rain cause hardness in water? Biology: (Burcu Erdogan, Ali Ercing�z, Ege Zorlu) Does carbon dioxide affect plant growth? Physics: (Can Atalay, Deniz Kiratlioglu, Arman Onart) Is there a difference between the convection current of acid rain and distilled water? GLOBAL WARMING Global warming is the effect of greenhouse gases on the earth. Greenhouse gases are the emissions that rise into the atmosphere and trap the sun's energy, keeping the heat from escaping. Because of the global warming, the air temperature near the earth's surface rose by 0.9�C during the last 100 years. This causes the sea levels to rise, increase the intensity of extreme weather events and increases the amount of acid rain. As a result of these newly formed conditions, unprecedented natural disasters and damages the natural life such as agricultural yields, species, extinctions and the range of disease vectors arise. While these are occurring, people are trying to defend their future both socially and politically. To be able to take steps upon stopping the effects of global warming, people need to be aware of this natural danger. We as a science fair group, investigated the effects of global warming under three specific titles. Water, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone gases are heading to global warming. This is because of them preventing escaping of radiation out of the atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the energy input of earth's atmosphere, due to increase of radiation. The increasing amounts of these gases also increase the amount of substances which dissolve in water and this causes hardness in water because of acidity. ...read more.

Middle

If leather produced after boiling the water this shows that the water only had temporary hardness; because the hardness of the water could be removed by boiling. However if the water did not produce leather when tested with soap after being boiled, this showed that the water was permanently hard and that this hardness can not be removed by boiling, and can be removed through the use of an ion exchange resin. I predict that if the calcium ions being dissolved in the rain water is calcium carbonate, then the water produced will be temporarily hard. This is because calcium carbonate is insoluble, meaning after being dissolved in the acid rain sample, and after boiling this sample, this calcium carbonate can be removed by boiling: Ca(HCO3)2 --> CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O By boiling temporary hard water, the water's softness and purity can be restored again, as the calcium ions will have been removed. Apparatus Apparatus Justification Soap To test for the hardness of the water sample, by seeing whether lather is produced when soap is added to each sample of water. Calcium Carbonate To be dissolved within each water sample (rain and distilled) to see if hard water is produced. Bunsen Burner To boil the sample of rain water if it is was found to be hard, in order to determine whether it is permanently or temporarily hard. Test Tubes To contain a small sample of the water sample after the calcium ions have been dissolved within it (inside the beaker). This is where the sample will be tested for hardness by the soap, so as to see the amount of lather produced more clearly (if the water is soft). Distilled water 1) To dissolve calcium ions, to see if hardness can be caused in pure water. 2) To dilute hydrochloric acid, which will be used instead of rain water (because it would have been unpractical to wait for rain and collect it). ...read more.

Conclusion

The plants inside this container, without much carbon dioxide grew more in days 1-2 than the plants in the container with the carbon dioxide grew for the entire experiment. The data shows clearly just how much difference there was in the growth between the growth of the beans inside the container with the carbon dioxide being produced and the growth of the beans inside the other, control container. Our findings, show that carbon dioxide really does have an effect on plant growth, and has the ability to (when in high concentration), to stop plant growth completely (as was seen in this experiment). This experiment highlights just what a danger a greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide is to the atmosphere in high concentrations, and what is more worrying is that the amount of carbon dioxide and other harmful greenhouse gases are gradually increasing in the atmosphere. Even in low concentrations, carbon dioxide and other polluting gases can be held accountable for the increasing number of human diseases such as asthma. It is also a great danger to plants and can be very harmful to them, as clearly demonstrated by this experiment. As, we have also learned from this experiment, it also traps heat rays from the Sun, prevents it from re-entering space and keeps it within the Earth's atmosphere, causing global warming (the greenhouse effect). Another problem arising from excess carbon dioxide being present in the atmosphere is that it causes acid rain once the carbon dioxide gets dissolved in atmospheric precipitation to form dilute carbonic acid (which is acid rain). Acid rain affects the pHs of soil, lakes, rivers etc. and has a negative effect on architectural structures due to its corrosive nature. This experiment clearly emphasizes just how important it is for the world to reduce these carbon dioxide emissions, and some of the long-term problems that may arise if carbon dioxide continues to be released into the atmosphere at the rate that it is being produced today. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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