• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Essay on Ghosts

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In literature, the archetype of the mother is constituted by two contrasting images: the ideal mother, "associated with Virgin-identified self-sacrifice,"1 who "bear[s] pain with patience and nurture[s] selflessly,"1 and the wicked, evil mother, jealous of her offspring and filled with "pain, anger, frustration."1 Both sides of the archetype can be clearly seen in fairy stories, such as the story of Cinderella, in which the fairy godmother is portrayed as an "ideal mother" who nurtures Cinderella, providing her with magical gifts and the chance to meet and marry the prince; the "bad" mother is present in Cinderella�s cruel step-mother, who neglects and abuses her. In August Strindberg's The Father (1887), Strindberg evokes the negative side of the maternal archetype in portraying Laura as a "bad" mother who has a negative impact on Bertha�s life; in Henrik Ibsen's Ghosts (1881), Ibsen evokes the positive side of the maternal archetype in portraying Mrs. Alving as a "good" mother, who cares about her son, nurtures him and is prepared to suffer on his behalf. In The Father, Laura is depicted as an extremely bad mother who manipulates her daughter, Bertha, to get revenge on her husband, Captain Adolf. Though Captain Adolf selflessly wants Bertha "to be a teacher,"(581) so "she can support herself"(581) and be independent, in fact, "if she gets married she can use what she learned to educate her own children."(581) ...read more.

Middle

Mrs. Alving "had to bear it for the sake of [her] little boy." (118) Finally she had to sacrifice her son, for his own good, and "that was the time Oswald was sent away." (118) Oswald blames her for sending him away, and mentions that it "shouldn't have" "made much difference to [her] if [he] was around or not." (136)However, she doesn't care for this blame, since she knows she did the right thing by sending him away, if not he would be "poisoned simply by breathing the foul air" (118) of the house. Especially after she had learned that his father has an affair with Regine's mother, "[her] own servant girl."(118) Finally being made aware of all this, even Pastor Manders describes Mrs. Alving's suffering for her son as an "ordeal." Mrs. Alving openly states how devoted she is to her son, crying out, "Oh Oswald, my own boy! The thing I have in all the world. The one thing I care anything at all about." Moreover, she also proves this to be true as even when Oswald tells his mother how sick he is, she assures him he will "have his mother to look after him." In the end, we see how much she is ready to sacrifice for her son, she is willing to even kill him at his own request, to stop his suffering, "if it becomes necessary" (162) ...read more.

Conclusion

of money to "keep her mouth shut;"(122) the money is intended as a dowry, to induce some man to marry her. She marries Jacob Engstrand so the child will have a father, even though Engstrand only marries her for the money after Regine had "dropped a few hints about how much money she had, and told him a tale about some foreigner."(122) She remains in the marriage for the sake of her child even though Engstrand almost "drove her to death the way [he] tormented her," (93) and, in fact, Regine�s mother does die, though we do not know from what. Thus Ibsen, in Regine�s mother, presents another image of a self-sacrificing mother, paralleling the central image of Mrs. Alving. In Ghosts, Ibsen portrays mothers as heroines who sacrifice their lives for their offspring; in The Father, Strindberg portrays mothers as evil creatures who manipulate and destroy their children�s lives. Ibsen portrays mothers in this way as he wants to stand up for women's rights, and stop the oppression of women in the patriarchal society of 19th century Norway. Strindberg, who was responding to Ibsen's advocation of women�s rights, wants to prove that giving women rights is dangerous, because once women gain power they will use it destructively, as Laura does. 1 1 New dictionary of ideas, volume 4, article on motherhood and maternity by Maina Chawla Singh, p1508 "Stereotypes of 'ideal' mothers" ?? ?? ?? ?? [Type text] ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Languages section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Languages essays

  1. Fasting Feasting by Anita Desai Detailed Study Notes

    I feel that Anita Desai uses each character in the Patton family as a representative of an American characteristic. Mr Patton of course represents gluttony in his undying passion for red meat. The author's use of diction in "he holds up a spatula in the air, waiting for his congregation to assemble" makes the readers regard him as self-important.

  2. Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel Chapter Analysis

    it makes Tita and Pedro's love for each other become more intense causing them to find any opportunity to be with each other. Even a normal dinner could turn into something magical about them shows how the harder it is for them to have each other, makes them want each more where you always want something you can never have.

  1. study guide- Ibsen's A Doll's House

    At the same time, I guess it is good that this part happened because it made Nora mature and realize she has so much more to offer the world than what Torvald was allowing her to do in the isolated lifestyle he led his family in.

  2. World Lit. - Comparative analysis: Death and The Maiden and Ghosts

    In discussing Gerardo's infidelity he says; You already forgave me, you forgave me, how many times will we have to go over this? We'll die from so much past, so much pain and resentment. Let's finish it - let's finish that conversation from years ago, let's go close this book

  1. bMany women regardless of nationality or age contain negative body image and if they ...

    Also, the average woman in North America spend 2.5 years of her life washing, styling, cutting, coloring, cramping, and straitening her hair at home or in salon. (120 Wolf, 1991) We become prisoner of perfect body without even realizing it.

  2. Engligh Extended Essay on Egdgar Allen Poe

    The first sign of dream-like surrealism in The Fall of The House of Usher comes in the first two lines of quoted poetry "son coeur est un luth suspendu" by B�ranger which translates to his heart is a suspended lute.

  1. Hindi Extended Essay - time travel

    à¤à¤° पायà¥à¤à¥ à¤à¤ª यॠसà¥à¤à¤ à¤à¥ यॠà¤à¥à¤°à¥à¤¨ à¤à¤ सà¥à¤à¥à¤¶à¤¨ सॠà¤à¤ à¤à¤¨à¤µà¤°à¥ २०५० à¤à¥ à¤à¤²à¤¤à¥ हॠवॠà¤à¤à¤²à¥ सॠसाल तठलà¤à¤¾à¤¤à¤¾à¤° पà¥à¤¥à¥à¤µà¥ à¤à¥ परिà¤à¤°à¥à¤®à¤¾ à¤à¤°à¤¤à¥ रहतॠहॠफिर à¤à¤ à¤à¤¨à¤µà¤°à¥ २१५० à¤à¥ वॠरà¥à¤ à¤à¤¾à¤¤à¥ हॠलà¥à¤à¤¿à¤¨ à¤à¤¸à¤®à¥ बà¥à¤ ॠमà¥à¤¸à¤¾à¤«à¤¿à¤°à¥à¤ à¤à¥ लिठतॠसिरà¥à¤« हपà¥à¤ªà¤¤à¥ भर à¤à¤¾

  2. The Other Slipper - retelling the story of Cinderella.

    With the chicken soup cooling and the metal spoon hanging at his fingertips, he knew his vows at that very moment. I would never let you go, with our hands intertwined, because this is true love and nothing can surpass it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work