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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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Meet our team of inspirational teachers Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents • Marked by Teachers essays 2
1. ## Hooke's Law Intro and data processing

?x = � 0.05 cm Length After Extension x (cm) ?x = � 0.05 cm Trial 1 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N Trial 2 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N Trial 3 Force F (N) ?F = � 0.001 N 3.85 3.85 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.85 4.85 0.490 0.458 0.491 3.85 5.85 0.717 0.697 0.713 3.85 6.85 0.987 0.986 0.995 3.85 7.85 1.210 1.259 1.300 3.85 8.85 1.600 1.564 1.533 3.85 9.85 1.769 1.842 1.822 Processed Data: Extension of the Spring and the Average Force Exerted Extension x (cm)

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2. ## The purpose of this lab is to examine impact craters. Impact craters occur when a high velocity object collides with a larger body

As a result, this increases the diameter by an additional diameter factor, and get And can be further clearly written as with mass and gravity being constants. This will be the main method that will be taken into account when evaluating the formation of the craters, since it yields a dependent and independent variable that leads to a research question. Research Question How is crater size affected by the energy provided? Independent Variable Height of the "meteor" Dependent Variable Resultant Crater Diameter Controls Mass of the meteor, surface of impact, gravity Hypothesis Applying the kinetic energy equation will show that the diameter will increase as the energy increases because the object can accelerate and gather more force for the collision.

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3. ## How does the mass of a spherical object and the height from which it is dropped into sand affect the width and depth of the crater formed?

Thus, where a is the radius of the cap and h is the depth. Put into terms of the diameter s, volume can be represented as . Plugging in this equation, the potential energy present in the crater is represented by. The kinetic energy comes from the dropping object. At impact this energy is equivalent to the object's initial potential energy, because it has all been converted into kinetic energy. This is P=mg, where m is mass and is the height of the drop. Thus, the relationship between the potential energy present in the crater and the kinetic energy of the dropping object can be represented by where Y is the energy of the ball and P is the energy of the crater.

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4. ## Energy density experiment - Aim: To determine the energy density of ethanol

After obtaining the energy, divide by the mass of the fuel burnt to determine the energy density. Method: 1. Water was measured and weighed on a electronic balance in a beaker. The initial temperature of the water was also recorded. 2. Using a retort stand and clamp, the beaker was held above the spirit burner which contained ethanol. 3. The ethanol was placed on top of the electronic balance. While the ethanol was burning, for every 0.5g of ethanol burnt, the temperature of the water was recorded. 4. The water was refilled when the temperature of the water reached a high temperature.

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5. ## How does the number of holes in a plastic cup affect the time it takes the water to drip out of a cup?

of water. This then would be poured into the cup. The drainage time of the water will be measured with a stopwatch (�.01s). The timing will start when the water first makes contacts with the paper cup and stop when the water stops dripping from the cup. The same person will be timing for each trial. Controlled Variables: A control of this experiment would be using the same type of cup with the same size throughout the experiment. The size of the cup would be measured by using a paper mm ruler to measure the diameter of the bottom of the cup.

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6. ## How does the mass of the paper helicopter affect the drop time of the paper helicopter?

Responding Variable: The drop time of the paper helicopter The drop time will be measured with a stopwatch (�.01s). The timing will start when the hand lets go of the paper helicopter at a drop height of 1 meter and stop when the paper helicopter touches the floor. The same person will be timing for each trial. Controlled Variable: A control of this experiment would be having the drop height the same throughout the experiment. This will be measured by using a meter stick and marking the height at which to drop the paper helicopter. The paper helicopter will drop at that marked height each time.

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7. ## Simple pendulum lab. In this experiment, the length of the string will be altered to see the affect on the time period.

As the length of the string is being changed, it is the independent variable. This would affect the time period, hence being the dependant variable. Factors like the mass of the bob (154.02g �0.01g), angle of release (45� �1�), the stopwatch (�0.01s) The main purpose of the experiment is to find one factor that affects the time period of a simple pendulum. In this case, the factor is length of the string. Hypothesis As the length of the string decreases, the time period also decreases. This is because, as the length of the string decreases, the bob has to travel less distance in the same time (10 oscillations).

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8. ## Physics lab on propagation of errors. In this experiment I investigated the propagation of errors while calculating the volume of two objects.

I decided to first take the spherical object. The amount of water displaced by the spherical object is equal to the volume of said object. The rise in the level of water came out to be 9cm3. The error in this case can be calculated as + 1 (because the LC of the cylinder is 0.5 mm). Next we calculate the volume using the formula to calculate the volume of a sphere i.e.Volume of a sphere = 4/3 ?r3. The radius of the spherical object is half the diameter, which I found using the Vernier Calipers.

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9. ## Conservation of Momentum Experiment.

Uncertainty for Average Initial Velocity of Cue Puck: = 0.92cm/s Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Initial Velocity of Stationary Puck: N/A No Movement Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Final Velocity of Cue Puck: 0.714...%+0.180...%=0.895% 0.39cm/s Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Final Velocity of Stationary Puck: 0.90%+0.18145=1.081% 0.49cm/s - [Data Table #2] Final Processed Data: Cue Puck Stationary Puck Mass of Puck �1g 553 551 Angle of Movement �0.1� 39.0 [S of E] 40.0 [N of E] Average Initial Length Between Dots �0.01cm 1.40 N/A (Stationary)

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10. ## Current Balance Lab - investigate how a magnetic field affects a wire carrying an electric current.

In other words, the strength of a magnetic field and the size of the current through the wire will be directly proportional. The slope of this line will simply be the force over the current: We will use this relationship to calculate the strength B, inside the solenoid because combining the two previous formulas: Basing my hypothesis on these known formulas, I can safely predict that as more current is passed through the wire, the magnetic field will undoubtedly increase.

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11. ## Physics Airtrack Experiment. The effects of angle on the acceleration of a glider on an airtrack.

Reset photogates in order to make sure you recieve a proper time during experiment. Step 2- Set airtrack at a spefic angle using a protractor (in this case at 2� (+- 1�). Step 3- Initiate airtrack and observe as glider glides past photogates and collides with Rubber band stopper. Step 4- Record time output given by initial photogate. Step 5- Repeat step 1 through 4 for 5 trials at the same angle on the air track. Step 6- Increase the angle of the airtrack using a protractor (doesn't have to be incrementally) and repeat steps 1 through 5.

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12. ## This is a practical to investigate the relationship between time period for oscillations and mass attached to a spring. When mass is attached to the spring and stretched, we observe that the mass-spring system starts oscillating.

Apparatus Used: - Spring - 0.1kg (x6) masses - Boss and Clamp. - Retort Stand. - Stopwatch - Set square and ruler - Mean pointer I am going to change the independent variable by adding masses attached to the spring. First, I will start by adding a 0.1kg mass. Then, I will continue to add a 0.1kg mass and take readings for the time of oscillations until I have added 0.6kg. Once I have finished taking readings for 0.6kg, I will end my experiment.

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13. ## Uniform Motion Lab. This experiment will measure the motion of a cart moving on an incline plane that is sloped downwards which leads onto a level horizontal track.

It was measured using a spark timer, with a constant setting of 10Hz (10 dots /s). Dependent Variable- The displacement of the cart as it travels on an inclined plane. The time was measured using the spark timer and the distance from each dot on the ticker tape was measured by a meter stick and used to determine the displacement. Controlled Variables- * Environment: The experiments were performed in the same part of the classroom and this ensured more accurate results. There was no wind to affect or assist the cart in its movement across the horizontal track.

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14. ## Physics Lab

Take three readings for each mass. 10. Repeat steps 7-9 using 200g, 300g, 400g and 500g masses in turn and record all the results. Data Collection: Table 1: Raw data:- Mass (in g �0.01g) Length of spring (in cm �0.05cm) 0.00 13.80 100.00 19.50 200.00 29.00 300.00 38.50 400.00 48.50 500.00 58.50 Table 2: Calculating force and extension:- * In order to calculate the force exerted on the spring by the masses we use the formula F = mg, where F is the force in Newtons (N), m is the mass in kilograms (Kg)

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15. ## Pendulum lab. The main purpose for this experiment is to find the factor that will affect the time of a pendulum. In this scenario, the length is the one of the factor that will affect time.

One of my classmates will contribute to the experiment using a stopwatch to measure time while I conduct the procedures. 1. When all the materials are gathered, attach the T-bar to the lab table. 2. Tie the string to the T-bar 30 centimeters away from the peak. 3. Tie the bob (1000 grams) to the string and adjust the length of the string to designated amount, may need adjustment from the string that is tied to the T-bar. 4. Set the bob next to the bar, check if the classmate is ready to start the time.

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16. ## The purpose of this experiment is to observe the acceleration of an object caused by the Earth's gravity.

* Put the carbon paper disk onto the buzzer and thread the ticker tape through the guide slots on the buzzer and under the carbon paper disk. The black side of the disk should be touching the ticker tape. * Attach the weight onto the end of the ticker tape and check that the weight can fall freely, pulling the ticker tape smoothly through the buzzer. * Put something soft (school bag) on the floor where the weight will fall.

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17. ## Determining how the height of release affects the velocity of a basketball

On a straight wall, use the tape ruler, to mark the following heights of release: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 cm's with a marker. 2. Get a volunteer to be able to measure the time taken for the basketball to impact the ground from a initial height of 30cm's. 3. Use the straight flat surface and place it completely horizontally right underneath the marked height of the wall, and on top of it place the basketball ensuring a constant angle of 180 degrees from release.

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18.  ## Charles Law Research Question: Investigate the relationship between the length of a column of air and its temperature in Celsius and by doing so, find a value for Absolute Zero.

The result could therefore be stated as: 3.3 � 0.05cm. However, we must take into account that a length is a measure of two different positions, then a subtraction of the two. The end of the capillary tube of air may not be exactly on the zero of the ruler. Consider two different alternatives to the initial length of column of air measure from the bottom of the capillary tube: Length of the Column of Air: (5.3 � 0.05)cm - (2.0 � 0.05)cm From the above, it can be deduced that the length can be between: (5.3 + 0.05)cm -

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19. ## Investigating the friction created on different surfaces. Factors that affect range of catapult

type and number of rubber bands used, the distance that the catapult is pulled (force used), mass of the box, the type of catapult used, testing ground , humidity Material:- a catapult, rubber bands, tape, a box with four different surfaces , measuring meter, notebook, pen Method:- 1. The catapult was placed on the cement floor. 2. Two rubber bands were attached to either legs of the catapult. Afterward the launcher of the catapult was attached to the rubber bands.

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20. ## What would be the best geo-science solution to stop global warming?

Now scientists have come up with new solutions to preserve our natural climate. These projects are called geo-engineering. Geo-engineering has become a controversial topic, as many scientists doubt the necessity and effectiveness of the many individual projects. Many believe that we do not have the moral right to "play god" and change the climate, as we still do not know enough about our climate and its reactions to man-made changes. 1 The first idea, named Marine Stratiform Cloud Enhancement, is supposed to reflect the sun rays by making artificial clouds.

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21. ## Ohm's Law lab

However, when the voltage is increased significantly to around 25V, the filament begins to glow even when immersed in water. The voltmeter reading represents the drop in voltage across the given conductor showing the presence of a resistor. Data Processing: Resistance is given by the formula : = The uncertainty calculation is done using = ; change in resistance = Since ?V=?I=0.01 For a resistor to be Ohmic, the graph of the plotted V-I readings: * Must pass through the origin * V and I must be directly proportional.

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22. ## Circular motion lab

> The string is then held while the bob is rotated in a horizontal circular motion. > The time taken for 20 revolutions is recorded using a stopwatch. > The radius of the arc is then changed, and readings for the time are taken again. > The procedure is repeated for 10 different radii (lengths of string) and 5 readings for the time are taken for each radius. > The data is then used to find the average radius and average time, to find the acceleration due to gravity. Error Propagation: > Error Of Meter Scale = Least count of meter scale � 2 (Analog Instrument)

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23. ## Investigating Wires

However when the length of the wire is doubled, its cross-sectional area is halved. (Assuming the volume of the nichrome wire remains constant and of course that the wire is a cylinder if we zoom in.) As resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area, halving the area leads to doubling the resistance. The combined effect of doubling the length and halving the cross-sectional area is that the original resistance of the wire has been quadrupled. However in this experiment we will mainly be working with Ohm's law (V=IR) for our calculations in order to see how the length of a nichrome wire affects the resistance.

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24. ## Research question: Part A : What is the static friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact? Part B : What is the kinetic friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact?

The acceleration is calculated by using the marks dotted onto a strip of ticker tape. The value of the coefficient is determined by using the formula of. From the experiment, it can be determined that the kinetic coefficient of wood surface with wood surface is 0.3290, glass surface with wood surface is 0.2390 and between the sand paper surface and wood surface is 0.4780. Research question: Part A : What is the static friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact? Part B : What is the kinetic friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact?

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25. ## Circular Motion Practical - The graphs show that there is a positive correlation between force applied and speed of rotation, as well as a positive correlation between radius and speed.

0.295 0.490 0.675 0.881 1.08 1.27 1.46 Speed 1.9�0.10 2.3�0.15 2.7�0.26 3.0�0.36 3.3�0.25 3.6�0.30 3.7�0.50 Example of calculation using data in column 1: Results after calculations for test 2 when mass of the object being constant 0.0152�0.0001kg, force constant 0.675�0.0098N radius(�0.005m) 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Speed 2.5�0.33 3.2�0.44 3.6�0.28 4.5�1.15 4.3 �0.33 4.9�0.27 5.1�0.42 Example of calculation using data in column 1: Conclusion The graphs show that there is a positive correlation between force applied and speed of rotation, as well as a positive correlation between radius and speed.

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"The boldness of asking deep questions may require unforeseen flexibility if we are to accept the answers."

-Brian Greene

If you want to learn about the physical laws that govern the behaviour of everything in the universe, then chances are you'd enjoy studying physics as part of your IB diploma. Physics is one of six subjects on offer in group 4, and gives students a grounding in the scientific method, lab work, and range of theoretical concepts. The theory portion begins with building blocks like mechanics, electric currents, and waves, and builds up to advanced topics like astrophysics and particle physics.

Physics will require a fair amount of writing, often in the form of lab reports. If you need to refine your writing skills, come visit our collection of student-submitted IB physics papers. Study the teacher-marked and peer-reviewed papers alongside your own work, and before long, you'll know how to edit and re-write assignments to your teachers' high standards.

Students who get good marks in physics, and especially in high level physics, will leave school well positioned to apply for a range of university course within the physical and biological sciences.

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