• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Crater formation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Gracja Kowalska    2IB

CRATER FORMATION

Research question:

Does the height from which the ball is let affect the depth of the crater formed?

Variables:

  • Independent
  1. Height- four different heights (40,60,80,100 cm) were established. At each height both balls were let freely and the depth of the crater formed was measured.
  2. Ball- two balls of different diameters and weights were used in the experiment. Both were used to measure the depth of the crater.
  • Dependent
  1. Depth of crater formed- after each ball was let freely, the crater in the sand was formed. The surface of the sand in the tank was established using a sheet of paper. When the ball formed a crater the ruller was used to measure its depth.
  • Controlled
  1. Ball- each ball has its own characteristic. The bigger ball has a diameter of 4.2 cm and the mass of 97.14 g. The smaller one has a diameter of 2.8 cm and the mass of 79.04 g. only those two ball were used in the experiment.
  2. Volume of the sand in the tank- the same volume of sand was used in each measurement. No sand was taken nor added so as not to interrupt the crater formation.
  3. Initial velocity- as each ball was let freely, the inital velocity was equal to zero

Apparatus:

  • Tank with the sand
  • Two metal balls
  • Measuring tape (2 m) [±0.05 cm]
  • Slide calliper [±0.05 cm]
  • Balance [±0.01 g]

image00.png

Sketch2: The experiment.

Method:

  1. Prepare the equipment and make sure the sand surface is flat.
...read more.

Middle

Having done more measurements than needed, two of them could be omitted. I chose two extreme values (minimal and maximal) to be not included in further calculations. Later on I calculated the average values for the craters using the equation:

image01.png

The uncertainty of the average value of measurement was calculated using equation:

image09.png

Table 2: Average values of measurements of craters.

Height [±0.05 cm]

Big ball

Small ball

Avarage depth [cm]

∆ average depth

Avarage depth [cm]

∆ average depth

40.00

1.37

0.15

1.52

0.10

60.00

1.63

0.25

1.85

0.25

80.00

1.75

0.15

2.02

0.10

100.00

2.10

0.05

2.23

0.05

image10.png

Graph2: Best fit lines for big and small ball.

image11.png

Graph2: The relationship between height of the ball and the depth of crater. Ball first.

image12.png

Graph3: The relationship between height of the ball and the depth of crater. Ball second.

CE

I calculated the gradient for both balls.

First ball:

y=0.0115x + 1.1

x=60

y=1.79

gradient= image13.png=0.029

Later on I calculated the uncertainty. I used data on the graph (the steepest and least steep):

uncertainty=image02.png=image14.png=0.00335

I made the same calculations with second ball:

Second ball:

y=0.01155x + 0.904

x=60

y=1.597

gradient=image15.png=0.026

Later on I calculated the uncertainty. I used data on the graph (the steepest and least steep):

uncertainty=image02.png=image03.png=0.00264

...read more.

Conclusion

- in this experiment only four heights were established. The more heights the better the relationship between the height and the depth of the crater could be shown. Later on, the similarities between the big and small ball could be made.Uneven surface of the sand and the paralax effect- in measuring the depth of the crater only human eye and the side clipper were used. The sand around the crater was flattened (but as it was human eye to decide whether or not it is flat- the paralax effect should be mentioned) and the depth was measured using side clipper. I suggest to use transparent tank with sand and to check from each side whether the sand  has even surface.

All errors noted above could cause the differences between the values of measurements [Table1.]. To reduce the disparity I suggest to make all improvements also listed above and make more measurements at different heights.

Possible further experiments that could be done:

  • Check whether or not the humidity of the sand influences the results
  • Check whether or not the weight of the ball affect the depth of crater formed
  • Measure the dependence between the velocity reached by the ball and the depth of the crater

Bibliography:

  • Giancoli
  • http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/Science/sciber00/8th/forces/sciber/potkin.htm
  • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es2506/es2506page07.cfm
  • http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/books/CB-954/chapter3.pdf.


[1] http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/Science/sciber00/8th/forces/sciber/potkin.htm

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Physics essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the factors related to the crater formed by a falling object.

    3 star(s)

    The type of ball will be controlled by using the same snooker ball throughout the experiment. Data Table DROP HEIGHT(cm) � 0.5 DIAMETER OF THE CRATER (cm) DIAMETER OF THE CRATER (cm) DIAMETER OF THE CRATER (cm) MEAN DIAMETER OF THE CRATER (cm)

  2. Period of a loaded Cantilever (D, DCP, CE)

    suggests a positive relationship between the period of the oscillation and the mass loaded on a cantilever. As the mass loaded on the cantilever increases, the period increases as well. It also means that as mass loaded on the cantilever increases, it oscillates slower and the frequency decreases.

  1. Investigate the Size of Craters in Sand Due to Dropped Object.

    It leads that the greater impulse of the dropped slotted mass, the larger the depth of the craters and thus we presuppose that the larger its volume. The investigation was repeated by varying the height when dropping the slotted mass and all the results were tabulated and calculated.

  2. Bouncing balls. Research question: What is the relation between the height from which ...

    3.24 3.12 2.96 2.90 100.00 3.38 3.27 3.17 3.01 115.00 3.58 3.46 3.24 3.20 130.00 3.70 3.57 3.36 3.30 Rounded to 2 decimal place Considering the values of measurements from the table above, I can say that there is a significant differences between Pioneer ball and Dante.

  1. In this extended essay, I will be investigating projectile motion via studying the movement ...

    Previously mentioned in the interpretation of graphs, I noticed there was side way motion. Therefore, using a heavier metal ball will reduce the effect of air current on the metal ball. In addition, I should make sure that all fans and air conditioners are not in operation throughout the entire experimental procedure to reduce air current.

  2. The purpose of this lab is to examine impact craters. Impact craters occur when ...

    Measure the weight of the golf ball and record the weight. 5. With the simply sand container, place it underneath the table clamp where the golf ball will be dropped. Level off the sand with the Popsicle stick. 6.

  1. Bouncing balls

    Measurements were recorded as below: Table 3: Measurements of time it takes for a ball to bounce 6 times on the table Height [�0.05 cm] Time [�0.05 s] Pioneer Dante 40.00 2.34 2.37 2.35 2.22 2.17 2.21 55.00 2.59 2.60 2.62 2.54 2.53 2.53 70.00 2.91 2.92 2.90 2.73 2.73

  2. How does the sinkage depth of a tyre affect its rolling resistance ?

    When the cycle rolls down the ramp it loses energy due to hysteresis property of the pneumatic tires. Since the bicycle loses energy because of hysteresis , less work has to be done by the cycle . But the bicycle has to travel the same distance , which means that

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work