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# In this experiment, a mechanism is prepared to observe the refraction of light and calculate refractive index of water

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Introduction

REFRACTION OF LIGHT

CANDIDATE’S NAME:

BAŞAK BAYRAMBAŞ

INSTRUCTOR’S NAME:

MİNE GÖKÇE ŞAHİN

PARTNER’S NAME:

BATU AYTEMİZ

CRITERIA TO BE EVALUATED:

Data Collection & Processing, Conclusion & Evaluation

INTRODUCTION

In this experiment, a mechanism is prepared to observe the refraction of light and calculate refractive index of water according to the data taken from the experiment.

Refraction means the bending of a wave resulting from a change in its velocity as its moves from one medium to another. Since the frequency of a wave cannot change, independent of the source changing its frequency when it originally emits a wave. This change in wave velocity must result from a change in its wavelength in the second medium. As shown in the diagram, when the waves encounter an oblique interface, both their direction and wavelength change. In the instance illustrated, the wavelengths shorten and the reflected rays “bend toward the normal” as the wave enter the shallow or slower medium: To quantify the degree of refraction, a dimensionless quantity called index of refraction (n) is introduced.

n=c/v

where;

c: speed of light in a vacuum

v: average speed of light in the optically dense medium

n: medium’s index of refraction

Some common indices of refraction for a midrange wavelength of light (589 nm, a prominent line in the emission spectrum of sodium) are:

 vacuum 1 fused quartz 1.46 air (STP) 1.00029 crown glass 1.52 water (20ºC) 1.33 polystyrene 1.55 acetone 1.36 carbon disulfide 1.63 ethyl alcohol 1.36 flint glass (heavy) 1.65 sugar solution (30%) 1.38 sapphire 1.77 sugar solution (80%) 1.49 diamond 2.42

As it is shown in the table above refractive index of matters are constant.

DATA COLLECTION & PROCESSING

 Trials θ (Air)(±1.0) θ (Water)(±1.0) 0 0.0 0.0 1 18.0 13.0 2 19.5 15.0 3 30.0 23.0 4 33.5 25.0 5 46.0 32.0 6 50.0 35.0 7 65.0 43.0

Middle

4

0.55

0.42

0.01

0.02

5

0.71

0.52

0.01

0.01

6

0.76

0.57

0.01

0.01

7

0.90

0.68

0.01

0.01

Table 2: Sine of angles of light with y-axis in medium of air and water for each trial

Uncertainty calculation of sine of angles which are shown above in Table 2: For Trial 1: Snell’s Law:

When the light passes from one transparent medium to another, it bend according to Snell’s law which states that; • n: refractive index (optical density) of the medium

sin • : sine of the angle with y-axis    Since the refractive index (optical density) of air is equal to 1 ( , refractine index of water is equal to sine of angle of light in medium of air ( over sine of angle of light in medium of water ( . That’s why slope of the graph vs gives the approximate value of refractive index of water .

Figure : Graph of vs  Since is proportional to , the graph which is given above is linear.

According to the graph above, slope of best fit line gives the experimental value of refractive index of water, slope of worst line with greatest slope gives the maximum value of refractive index of water and the worst line with least slope gives the minimum value of refractive index of water in this experiment. Uncertainty of refractive index of water :  Percentage error calculations: CONCLUSION & EVALUATION

In this experiment, refractive index or in other words optical density of water ( is aimed to be found by the help of parallax method.

Conclusion

laboratory or field devices for the measurement of an index of refraction usually takes measurement for standard temperature (298.15K/25°C). That’s why, making experiment at standard temperature gives better results. Moreover, refractive index of vacuum which is a measurement of standard temperature is taken used during the calculations. Therefore, during the experiment paying attention to the temperature and trying to make it constant at 25°C makes the results better.

Another limitation is the thickness of the needles. Using thick needles can be misleading for the results of the experiment by affecting observations of refraction. So, thinner needles can solve that error source.

WORKS CITED PAGE

1. http://dev.physicslab.org/Document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=GeometricOptics_refractionLight.xml
2. http://interactagram.com/physics/optics/refraction/
3. http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/refractionsnells.htm
4. Giancoli, physics, sixth edition, Pearson Education International
5. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/geoopt/refr.html
6. http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/refrn/u14l1d.cfm
7. http://webapps-new.utsc.utoronto.ca/chemistryonline/refractive.html

http://dev.physicslab.org/Document.aspx?doctype=3&filename=GeometricOptics_refractionLight.xml

http://interactagram.com/physics/optics/refraction/

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/refractionsnells.htm

 Giancoli, physics, sixth edition, Pearson Education International

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/geoopt/refr.html

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/refrn/u14l1d.cfm

http://webapps-new.utsc.utoronto.ca/chemistryonline/refractive.html

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