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International Baccalaureate: Psychology
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The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of performing a concurrent task whilst observing a photo and how this results in inattentional blindness amongst the participants. Participants were to perform a simple task whilst observing the phot
1.0 Introduction: The adaptive human seeks to comprehend its surroundings. Sensations telling the brain of the objects in our surroundings and perception telling where and what they are. Together when linked they form a mental representation of reality. Through numerous consistent encounters of the same sensation or perception the mind forms mental schemas of the general surroundings. These sensations and perceptions are understood only after the mind has paid attention to these perceptions. Attention which is at highlight of this study is connected with the cognitive perspective that studies human mental processes.
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The results of Zimbardos experiment shocked the audience and showed significant importance to the new way of thinking about human nature.
A simulated prison was built in the basement of the psychology building at Stanford University. The uniforms of both prisoners and guards were intended to increase group identity and reduce individuality within the two groups. Participants were told that the 'experimenters wanted to try to simulate a prison environment within the limits imposed by ethical considerations'. Their assigned task as prison guards was to 'maintain the reasonable degree of order within the prison necessary for effective functioning'. Results: The behaviour of the 'normal' students who had been randomly allocated to each condition, was affected by the role they had been assigned, to the extent that they seemed to believe in their allocated positions.
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Experiments have shown that you can remember, for example a friend's phone number, better if you rehearse it. Then it improves the chances of the information being encoded into long-term memory. An example of this is the serial-position effect. If a list of 20 words slowly is read out loud you are most likely to remember words near the start or in the end of the list. Words near the start of the list have made it into long-term memory, the primacy effect. Words near the end of the list are still held in short-term memory, the recency effect. 1. (b) There are many basic assumptions which most cognitive psychologists would make when they study cognition. Best (1986)
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The similarities just went on and on and it was very hard to find Differences than finding similarities. Thomas Bouchard and David Lykken work at university of Minnesota in Minneapolis is a review of research began in 1979 to examine the question if how much influence your genes have in determining your personal psychological qualities. They began in 1983 to identify, locate, and bringing together pairs of 56 monozygotic reared-apart (MZA) twins from United states and seven other countries who agreed to participate in this psychological measuring and testing. To prove this research psychologists did this study were they took a lot of monozygotic twins who were separated in early in life, and were apart for almost all their lives and reunited as adults and compared them.
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It is then said that this person with MPD is suffering under immense amnesia. It is generally agreed that MPD is caused by repressed memories or childhood abuse. There have been various cases of MPD recorded in which people had from twos to tens of different personalities or from tens to hundreds. Each personality being unique with its very own memory. One study was done by the psychiatrists Thigpen & Cleckley in 1954. A 25 year old woman named Eve White had been experiencing severe headaches, blackouts and amnesia. Through hypnotism Eve White was able to recall what happened during her blackouts and it seemed she might be getting well again.
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On the basis of this information, each participant was given a 'psychological stress index ' from 3 (lowest stress) to 12 (highest stress). The participants were then given nasal drops which exposed them to one of five common cold viruses. Most showed signs of infection, but only around a third were judged by a doctor to have an actual cold. Looking at those results there was a great indication that the level of stress had to do something with the participants becoming sick AIM: The aim of this investigation is to prove that there is a connection between stress and illness.
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The next stage in the pyramid is associated with Love, belongingness, and other social matters. Maslow emphasised people's need for belonging to a group that shares their value and experience, this group varies between friends and family to even social and religious groups. Love is also important in Maslow's theory and is highly associated with belonging. The need for Esteem and better self-acceptance are the next stage in the pyramid where the person has to reach prestigious works and receive attention and appraisal from others.
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where we store the memory that we think we will need temporarily by the process of coding. In order to remember the data for longer time we must passed on to the last page, Long Term Store (LTS), where the data is remembered for a longer time, possibly for the lifetime, we can pass the memory into LTS by rehearsing or chunking information into groups. The theory was developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1928, however since then there has been discovered many holes in the theory. A study performed by Eysenck and Keane in 1995 describes the model as oversimplified, believing that there are many weaknesses in the model.
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This effect has been demonstrated in a variety of studies. The earliest and most popular study that has been conducted about social facilitation was by Norman Triplett in 1898. Throughout his study, Triplett observed the performances of bike racers while watching a race. He noticed that the participants in the race showed a better performance and faster times when racing with others instead of just racing alone. He then concluded that the presence of competitors contributed to this major change of outcome in the bike riders' race.
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Thus aggression is something outside our control as it is linked to cognitive processes within the brain. Cognitive approach sees that aggression cannot be understood without considering mental processes. One important aspect affecting our behavior is our capability of learning from others. This is tied with social learning theory. Cognitive social learning theory offers an explanation for aggression this being imitation. Imitation is the learning of behavior through observation of behavior conducted by others. Thus aggression may be learned from observations of others. Best example of imitation was seen in Bandura's study of children's imitation. His aim was to see how infants imitated adult behavior.
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Assess the extent to which one concept or model of information processing was helped in understanding cognition.
The mind detects details and then based on previous information makes sense of what is being seen i.e. arms, legs, body and head is interpreted as a human. 'Top-down' theories are also known as constructivist theories stressing that factors in constructing a sense of reality are received from the senses. Perception being an active process with which the individual's past experiences, knowledge and expectations seek out sensory data to 'complete the picture'. Due to the plasticity of the schema it is very much influenced by cultural differences also.
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Relation between training method and animal intelligence 3.0 Conclusion Bibliography 1.0 Introduction Psychology has evolved for many centuries certainly due to it's experimental aspects. Particularly the use of behavioristic methodology has been a long lasting resource of empirical evidence in the development of psychology. Especially in testing animals and their learning abilities. The behavioristic approach has given rise to understanding integral and most fundamental reasons for human behavior. Personal interest in animals and the training of them has driven me to the choosing of this topic.
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which causes the victim to be unable to tell the difference between reality and non-reality experiences, unable to think reasonably, unable to have normal emotional responses, and unable to act normally in public situat
If an identical twin has schizophrenia, then the other twin has a 48 percent chance of developing schizophrenia also. On the contrary, if a first cousin has schizophrenia, then he or she has a 2 percent chance of developing schizophrenia. Social and environmental factors are important because it may influence the emotional and physical body changes of teen undergoing puberty or hormonal changes in ways such as viruses, poor social interaction with others, and high stress. Schizophrenia normally occurs in people in their teenage years or in their twenties and thirties. Schizophrenia is fairly common in the U.S. with one percent being diagnosed with schizophrenia, which is about 20 million.
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A. Describe one cognitive explanation of human behavior making reference to one empirical study (4 marks) and B. Describe one strength and one limitation of this explanation of human behavior (4 marks).
This reconstructive memory is combined existing information with the new one to fill in the gaps. By her studies, she proved that the wording of a question using a false presuppositions can add new and false information to the knowledge about the event over time. In her studies she asked questions such as "How many people were in the car that was speeding?".
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A. In the context of human behavior outline one theory from the humanistic perspective (4 marks) and B. Explain one way in which methodology or cultural considerations have an impact on theory outlined in A (4 marks).
Is it just the will to earn even more or something else. Maslow came up with an idea that this is because having the money is most basic need fulfilled by working. Thanks to money we can buy food, shelter, clothes and other necessities - so they can fulfill our physiological and safety needs. However Maslow suggested that there is a hierarchy of needs and those two are just at the bottom.
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Foster, 1994, pp. 140-166) and perhaps means of treatment hopefully allowing the medical institution to reverse the upward trend in obesity in Western society. The book Obesity: Pathophysiology, Psychology and Treatment describes obesity rather eloquently: 'Being Fat in a Thin World'. While previously culture may have dictated that the svelte ideal was not the perfect body shape particularly during the Renaissance (Gary D. Foster, 1994, p. 141), today it is evident that with our modern society's pre-occupation, even obsession with this slender bodies and the lowering of the breast to waist ratio (Garner DM, 1980), the slimming of the ideal has been mirrored by the weight gain of the real (Gary D.
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Literature could not exist without language, and the skill to be able to use a language as it is used in literature, depends on a very basic psychological fact. Humans use language to convey messages and to communicate both orally and through writing. However the most important property of language is that it is needed for humans to think and use their intelligence. Even in the mind, every human must think in some form of language. This is why well written literature is as powerful, because it enters exactly this psychological balance and sparks the imagination and the understanding of whatever the message may be.
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When aggression is explained with priming it is assumed that aggression can be primed in an individual. Berkowitz and LePage (1967) conducted a study 'weapons effect' investigating the effect of priming on aggression. The study found that angered participants gave more shocks to their experimental partner when they were exposed to weapons than when they were not exposed to weapons. The weapons were the aggressive cues of the experiment. Aggressive cues are situational cues with an aggressive meaning that increase the accessibility of aggressive cognitions.
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After these 4 stages, at the onset of puberty, we finally enter the 5th stage and stay in that stage for the rest of our lives, the genital stage. After we become adults, we are affected by how well we had accomplished those previous stages. Freud believes that our personality after we become adults corresponds with some effects we should have when we don't pass the stages well enough. John Broadus Watson also believes in determinism, he once said, "give me a dozen healthy infant, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to
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Key differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods include their analytical objectives, the questions they employ, the data instruments they use, the forms of data they produce, and most importantly, the degree of flexibility within the study design. The objective of quantitative research methods are primarily to predict casual relationships, describe characteristics of a population, and to quantify variation, whereas the purpose of qualitative research methods include to describe and explain relationships, to describe group norms, and to describe variation.
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Although people have wondered about it for a long time, it has only been scientifically studied for the past 50 years or so. Before the rise of the cognitive perspective, several theories were made as to where knowledge comes from, is stored and how it is represented in our minds. The ancient Egyptians and Aristotle believed that knowledge came from the heart, Empiricists believe knowledge is gained from experience , nativists believe that knowledge is innate; genetically inherited, and theologians believe that knowledge is in the brain.
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They justified killing as self-defense and as a morally responsible attacker because of they are counted as having an imminent threat and have no other option to avoid that threat. Even though it is not wrong to kill someone on wars, soldiers, civilians and decisions makers are bound to have physiological trauma because of it. "Unfortunately, they are failing to prepare them morally, and in doing so they are failing in their duty to care for their soldiers' welfare. They leave their soldiers unprepared to deal with their post-combat consciences and unprepared to make morally right decisions about whom to kill in morally ambiguous circumstances."
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It stores brief in formations of a sensory stimulus after the stimulus itself has ended. Eg: seeing an object and then the object disappear. You'll have a vivid memory of it remaining. (Coltheart at al 1974) The second is short-Term Memory where information selected by the sensory memory that gets passed to the short term memory (STM). STM has a limited capacity and allows us to retain up to 7+/- pieces of information for long enough for us to be able to use it. Peterson (1959) tested and proved that information stored by the STM only lasts for approximately 15 to 30 seconds.
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They both were interested in the defining and understanding of consciousness. Although the idea of Wundt's structuralism critic against the theory of functionalism by James, they were both formed in the opposition to behaviourism, rejecting its reductionist and anti-mentalist S-R model. Cognitive psychologists also drew attention to the role of control and intention in behaviour that rejects the stimulus response view of the learning perspective. An example of this is Miller and his famous book "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information".
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-The same response to different stimuli, by forming an association. -blocking, one CS is already good enough, e.g. flashing a light to signal food is unnecessary, if a bell already serves that purpose. -Classical conditioning seems to be a very fundamental form of learning in a variety of species, but of little significance in people. -stimulus generalization; in classical conditioning, the tendency to produce a CR to both the original CS and to stimuli which are similar to it in some way (like a bell, and another bell)
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