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International Baccalaureate: Psychology
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For the Bobo Doll Experiment, it was necessary to pre-select and sort the children, to try and ensure that there was an even spread of personality types across the test groups; some subjects already known to be more aggressive in personality than others. The Bobo Doll Experiment began by placing one of the children from the test groups in a room with an adult. The subject sat in one corner of the room, with appealing toys to play with, such as potato prints and sticker activities.
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There seems to be a correlation between both the tests, however, the participant?s first language, and linguistic skills should be considered for this experiment. Word Count ? 173 words. Keywords ? colour, Stroop, effect, test, variable, perception, discrepancy, pattern ________________ Introduction The cognitive approach in psychology studies internal mental processes, such as thinking, problem solving, memory and language. Information processing is often aided or hampered by some factors, the main among the being ?attention.? Attention, as studied in cognitive psychology, is the idea of how certain information is processed as it is present in our surroundings.
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If objects were shown in the right visual field, the left hemisphere was able to name it verbally and in writing, which show the left hemisphere has speech comprehension and writing ability. However objects shown to the left eye, items could be identified by pointing, so therefore the right hemisphere also has language comprehension but no ability to speak or write. When two different objects were shown to each visual field, if asked to draw what they saw with the left hand, the patients drew what they saw in the left eye.
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To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?
Positive education could not only increase the well-being of the human population, but also save governments millions of dollars, as much research have found that this type of education reduces the likely hood of depression significantly. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) depression is the most costly disease in the world. Most research regarding positive education have been carried out by Seligman and his research team led by Reivich and Gillham, which let to the development of two different school programs: the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), and the Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum, which The Geelong Grammar School Project follows.
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Outline the principles of social cultural level of analysis and explain how they maybe demonstrated through researches and theories
Asch used a lab experiment to study conformity, where 123 male students from Swarthmore College in the USA participated in a ?vision test?. Using the line judgment task, Asch put a naive participant in a room with four to six confederates. The confederates had agreed in advance what their responses would be when presented with the line task. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves.
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Heston(1966) conducted and adoption study and looked at the incidence of schizophrenia in children who lived in foster homes. He correlated this incidence with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in their biological mothers. The aim of the study was to see whether schizophrenia is genetic or not. Because of biological inheritance, he expected a higher incidence of schizophrenia among the adopted children of schizophrenic mothers. Heston found that over 10% of the adopted children with a family history of schizophrenia were later diagnosed with it. This is considered strong evidence that schizophrenia has a genetic component. There have been many debates about whether intelligence is genetic or a learned behavior.
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But, the problem with consent is that sometimes when the individual experimented on knows the details, it can jeopardize the objective of the study. But, in this specific case, Milgram had participants agree to take part in an experiment on learning, instead of the real objective which was obedience. Sociocultural level of analysis: One particular method used at the sociocultural level of analysis is experimentation. This refers to the practice of manipulating variables to generate statistically analyzable data. One of the main principles of the Social L.O.A is the scientific approach to understanding and explaning how mental processes are influenced by others, which makes experimentation necessary because these psychologists needs a scientific explanation for social influences on the mental process.
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and being normal would mean falling within this bell curve. However there are problems using statistics to deal with abnormal behaviour. For example something considered normal (e.g. obesity) may not be a healthy behaviour, or having a high IQ does not mean the individual is dysfunctional. Concept of mental illness not used correctly by psychiatrists. Medical Model Theory of abnormal behavior, which assumes that all such disorders have physiological causes E.g. abnormal behaviour is the result of disordered neurotransmission This leads to treatments that address the physiological problems, primarily with drug treatment.
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Adrenaline is one of the hormones which plays a part in attracting. When we are in present of someone who we like or have a crush on, we get this feeling in which our heart starts beating fast and we get speechless. This is where adrenaline is is released and due to which we feel such sensations in our body. Serotonin is another hormone which plays an important role in origin of attraction. To explain the role of serotonin I would like to use the study done by Marazziti . She studied 60 individuals , out of which 20 were men and women who had fallen in love in the time span of 6 months .
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In this experiment the participants consisted of 36 boys and 36 girls, all aged 3 to 6. The children were then divided into three groups of 24, with 12 boys and 12 girls in each group. The children were examined beforehand so that there was an even spread of personalities across the groups. The first group was the control group. The second group was the aggressor group. And the third group was the passive group. In the three conditions, the children were put in the corner of a room with toys that they could not touch. In the control condition, there was no adult model in the room.
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As you know, one of the most scientific ways to study mental processes is through lab experiments. This is because the high levels of control allow a researcher to isolate a particular component of the cognitive process for study. In other words to test the IV and its effects on the DV. However the high levels of control bring artificiality into play. This can be seen as a weakness of lab experiments. It is vital to ensure that a lab experiment is ecologically valid. Correlation studies are important at the Cognitive Level of Analysis because it is not always ethical, easy or convenient to create situations or tests in a lab setting.
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The participants were then asked to judge the future of the girl based on how she would perform on an intelligence test. All the participants said that the ?poor? girl would do worse than the ?wealthy girl?. This shows that the participants already had a schema of how the environment would affect the girl?s performance on the test. This happens because human beings take in and actively process information based on a few vague details that they are given to form a conclusion that may not be correct.
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So a field experiment has high ecological validity, meaning that the findings can be applied to real world situations. 3. Field experiments are the only practical research method in some scientific disciplines. For example, a population biologist examining an ecosystem could not transport the entire environment into the laboratory. Cons: 1. A field experiment has decreased reliability - the extent to which the experiment would give consistent results if repeated.
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Helmsley proposed that a breakdown occurs between information already stored in memory and new incoming data. Stored information is used to create schemas which allow us to interpret and deal with current situations but in Sz brains, schemas are not activated. He believes that Schizophrenics experience sensory overload and do not know which aspects of a situation to pay attention to. Helmsley also believes that this misinterpretation is caused by abnormalities in he hippocampus. However, there is a limitation to cognitive theories as cognitive theories in themselves do not really explain the causes of Sz but simply describe some of the symptoms in cognitive terms.
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May produce competitive intergroup behavior 3. People who belong to a group (even when assigned) would automatically think of that group as their "in-group", and others as "out-group" 1. When people are casually assigned to a group, they have similar attitudes and behavior, and a bond is often formed amongst the members 1. People exhibit in-group favoritism, and a pattern of discrimination with the out-group 2. Individual's self esteem is maintained by social comparison: benefits of belonging to the in-group 1. Outcome of comparison is important, as it influence self esteem Cialdini et al 1976: 1.
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The information available may be lacking. An individual may receive information in a way that highlights certain aspects more than others. 3. The information given may be used in ways to maximize its use to the individual. There are several errors in attribution such as the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE), Self Serving Bias (SSB) and Actor-Observer Effect. All these are results of attribution bias. When the individual attempts to observe and explain someone?s actions but does not take all factors (situational and dispositional)
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Sometimes it is not possible for researchers to always follow the APA code of ethics as it may affect their results in their study. For example in Schachter and Singer (1962) injected participants with adrenalin, not in a harmful amount none of the less, fully informed consent could not be obtained since that might influence the study results (cause characteristics such as the placebo effect). They did not follow Principle C: ?Integrity? and Principle:E ?Respect for People?s Rights and Dignity? due to the fact that they did not obtain fully informed consent and they didn?t fully brief their patients in advance.
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Various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid, including the personality characteristics of both the observer and the person to be observed, and also competing stimuli. In retention, the observer is required to remember and hence retain the details of the behavior of the person observed. In terms of the conditions, retention is retaining the details of the behavior you paid attention to. In reproduction, the observer reproduces the behavior in accordance with the model observed. The model behavior is processed as an image, in which the image is recreated as the observer?s behavior.
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These two studies suggest that arousal may have an affect on emotion, but they do not support the two-factor theory?s claim that emotion is dependent on arousal. It can therefore be concluded that while arousal and appraisal interact with one another, they do not require each other in order for emotion to be experienced. After all, it is possible to experience emotion with an injured spinal cord or brain, just as it is possible to become angry or sexually aroused without fear or stress inducing stimuli.
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Then I will decide how I will conduct the experiment. The experiment will split the participants into two groups, as there will be an experimental group and a controlled group. There will be 10 participants each in both the groups; the participants will be obtained using selective sampling from a selective group of members. I will then find a video suitable for the experiment. I found a video on YouTube posted by the original researchers (Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris).
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He proposed the theory that those memories were repressed and trapped in the subconscious because of the negative effect they would have on the awaken mind. After several studies he came to realize yet another fault of memory, he discovered that some techniques used to retrieve those memories can create false memories instead, this was named the False Memory Syndrome and it gave one of the most important insights on the possibility the memory is not entirely perfect.
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Psychology IA Sociocultural Investigation. Do children have a preference of talking to other children with the same ethnicity?
In fact, some children even talked to more with a different ethnicity. Therefore, the culture and ethnicity of the preparatory children did not affect whom they preferred to interact and talk with. Introduction ________________ This study is a replication of another study conducted in 2011 on Asian-Canadian and French-Canadian preschoolers by researchers from Concordia University and the University of Montreal. The aim was to see whether Asian-Canadian and French-Canadian preschoolers had a preference of talking to children of the same ethnicity instead of children with a different ethnicity. They recruited 30 second-generation Asian-Canadian and 30 French-Canadian preschoolers from six daycares located in Montreal and they were paired with peers they had known for at least three months.
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Relative, are unique to a particular culture. There are particular disorders that are more common in women than men. Women are more likely to suffer from depression and specific phobias while men are more likely to suffer from alcoholism. Racial discrimination plays a very big part in the misdiagnosis of mental illness. Afro-Caribbean immigrants are 7 times more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia in the UK than a white person. This is justified by genetics as this is not the case in their own country. What is normal? That question poses a big problem for mental health experts as we don?t know who exactly is normal and who is abnormal and how do we use this image in comparison to the person who is diagnosing?
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Their results showed that 70% of intelligence can be attributed to genetic inheritance (intelligence correlations of: r(MZA's) = 0.71; r(MZT's)=0.79), the rest to environmental factors. Strengths in the methodology included a large, multicultural [[sample size and unlike previous research the adult population was addressed. However, recruitment relied on media coverage and there are ethical concerns about how the twins were reunited. There was also no control of previous contact between the twins and there was an assumption made that the twins reared together lived in an equal environment.
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Duenwald (2003), for example, has recently suggested that a short variant of the 5-HTT gene may be associated with a higher risk of depression, as it plays a role in serotonin pathways ? which have been linked to controlling mood, emotions and sleep. The fact that concordance rates for MZ twins in Nurnberger & Gershon (1982) is significantly below 100%, however, indicates that genetic factors do not give us the whole picture. Therefore, despite higher concordance rates in MZ twins, it is clear we cannot rule out the influence of the environment.
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