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International Baccalaureate: Theory of Knowledge

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  1. What are good reasons and bad reasons for funding scientific research ? Refer to science in public domains (astronomy , etc ..) and in private domains (drug and chemical companies). When science is an investment for profit, can it still be good science

    To fund means to provide money, or in other words to furnish a fund. In scientific means it is necessary because scientific research is a very expensive process and a lot of money is needed to buy expensive equipment and reagents and pay scientists. Without money scientists would not be able to have the materials and resources needed to complete the experiments correctly. This capital can be funded either by public domains or private ones. When funded by private domains, it is normally in the pursuit of commercial use. Keeping as aim the acquisition of economic wealth many companies pay scientists to provide them with research to rise their productivity and consequently their profit.

    • Word count: 1148
  2. Man Is the animal that speaks, Understanding language is thus the key to understanding man

    Whether this is true or not might be a matter of personal experience and opinion but we can come to some solid conclusions concerning such claims. The knowledge issue ?What is language?? is a very open ended question that can be looked at from multiple angles of examination. Firstly, we must establish a reasonable definition of language itself to avoid later confusion. However, the problem with definitions is that we are only using words to define more words, which causes difficulty in trying to find a good meaning or explanation to refer to.

    • Word count: 1624
  3. Art is a lie that brings us nearer to the truth (Pablo Picasso). Evaluate this claim in relation to a specific art form.

    With literature, at times when a writer claims something, within his work he does give some example and proves it right or wrong and we accept whatever the claim is as truth regardless of the fact that the story in which he is proving something as truth is fictional. What a writer writes is his point of view hence, when art is displayed truthfully the way it is, it may not have the right appeal to the readers consequently art that is truthful could be labeled as an unaesthetic work ?By ?unaesthetic? I understand a relation of philosophy to art

    • Word count: 1387
  4. Evaluate the role of intuition in different areas of knowledge

    In many scientific discoveries there is always a ?tipping point?, a ?trigger? which sets in motion your experiment and eventually leads to the conclusion which validates your hypothesis. Because of the nature of this area of knowledge, many people consider this to be a result of continuous and persistent experimentation. Ironically, the source and basis of many discoveries are ?hunches?; this is a form of intuition in which the conductor of the experiment has a ?right? feeling about something a nd this new direction taken by the scientist leads to the discovery.

    • Word count: 1122
  5. Are reason and emotion equal in justifying moral decisions?

    So i believe that although emotion and reason are dependent on each other for justifying moral decisions, emotion is more important. Emotions are usually personal to an individual whilst reason is usually shared and understood by others. For example, it is impossible to precisely measure the level of anger felt so as to give others an idea of what you are experiencing but it is possible to explain to someone what is meant by 1+1=2. Others may understand what anger is because they have experienced it but it doesn?t mean that they understand the level of anger you are experiencing at a particular moment.

    • Word count: 1103
  6. Is it possible to justify the different ways of knowing?

    This seems to suggest that in the pursuit of knowledge, humans use some form of hierarchy when applying the ways of knowing and that it is possible to justify this hierarchy. To have a hierarchy would mean to arrange or classify the different Ways of Knowing according to their relative importance or inclusiveness in giving us knowledge (Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary). For this to be possible, we need to find a set of common basis that can be used to judge each Way of Knowing against its ability to deliver knowledge.

    • Word count: 1718
  7. In terms of knowledge, when we name things what is won and what is lost?

    To put it simple, names are obviously words, and without words there is no language, hence with no language there is no communication. This last aspect is precisely the one that distinguishes human beings from the rest of non-rational species, the ability of communicating in the way humans do (bigger abstractive thoughts than animals). Synthesizing, we could consider these characteristics as some of the positive aspects in naming things. When I am playing mimics and I perform an action, the ones that are trying to guess, can actually do it, since they relate my performance to established terms, words or names.

    • Word count: 1419
  8. When should we trust our senses to give us the truth?

    However the notion of truth varies in the areas of knowledge. In the area of the sciences, the truth is made up of hard facts and supported by theories that have been tested, but the truth is only the truth till a new breakthrough has been founded, that will develop on the previous truths. In the area of history, the truth might not be accurate as the events that have occurred were in the past and inference has to be made. Our senses are the ones that gives us information directly from our surroundings, and all five senses work together in order to allow us to understand our environment.

    • Word count: 1779
  9. The Legitimacy of the State. From where does the state derive its authority?

    The peace is kept by a powerful agent, the sheriff. Without him to protect them they might fall prey to bandits so they pay him well and support him when the bad guys come to town. Then everything depends on the sheriff being better at gunplay than his opponents. If he is not then they will overwhelm him, the bandits will impose their will on the townsfolk. Force, not sentiment, is decisive. So the moral seems clear: it is the most powerful who rule. ?Power? is the ability to make things happen.

    • Word count: 1185
  10. What do we really see?

    As for reasoning it is defined as trying to understand and to make judgments on practical facts , but then again do we all have the same understanding and judgment on things we perceive?. These two ways of knowing are applied in our everyday life and two important areas of knowledge science and art. A big part of discovering Science is by experimenting on different things in which observation and conclusions which are depended on our perception and reasoning determines the scientific discovery within that experiment.

    • Word count: 1313
  11. Two thirds of what we see is behind our eyes Chinese proverb

    The thing is that we have to study the onion. We perceive the world based on already acquired knowledge, experience, seeing what we expect to see rather than what it actually is. We don't actually see, we just believe that we see. For example I'm staying in front of the class and the students believe there is only one Liza they see, but actually that is wrong. If there are 19 students, not including me, and one teacher in the classroom, hence at least twenty one Liza exists. Everyone has his own image of me in his mind, which is real and exists.

    • Word count: 1250

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