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International Baccalaureate: Theory of Knowledge
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Is it possible to think without language? How does language facilitate, extend, direct or limit thinking?
direct? is instead ?to aim in a particular direction or at a particular person?; ?to limit? can be meant as ?to set a point beyond which something does not or may not pass?. Now that every word has been analyzed we can state the second question again: ?How does the method of communication based on the use of words make thinking easier, make it longer in space or time, aim it in a particular direction, or set a point beyond which it does not pass?? I believe in different cases language has different effects on thinking.
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La certeza consiste en la seguridad de la verdad de nuestros conocimientos, o en tener conciencia de la verdad, es decir, la certeza parece ser la verdad reflexiva, la verdad de la verdad.
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TOK Essay. The entire accuracies of mathematics and the natural sciences rely on the four ways of knowing.
Yet, the natural sciences and mathematics differ in their methods of explanations and how they are described. The entire accuracies of mathematics and the natural sciences rely on the four ways of knowing. Actually, the natural sciences rely on all four i.e. language, perception, reasoning, and emotion, whilst mathematics only requires three of the four i.e. language, perception, and reasoning. In the natural sciences, language is an important aspect of it. In order for two scientists to be able to converse, they must have equal understanding on a topic. They must understand the terms used. For example, a biologist cannot talk to a chemist about enzymes.
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Therefore, that?s the reason why culture appears. There are 4 changes that humans develop, which are language, abstract thinking, tools for technology, and the necessity to have human relationship. Culture also establishes rules to a society at the point that it influences belief, but it doesn?t have the adequate justification (Van de Lagemaat, 2008). Knowledge is a justified true belief, and truth is given by certainty. Truth is independent, and simply believing that something is true, does not make it true.
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The brain allows us to predict, create flashbacks, foreshadow and interpret someone?s actions. There is no evidence from the past, that our far ancestors have had the same brain capabilities as we do nowadays. It is thought, however, that brains evolve themselves over time, as the world also evolves. It is too early to say whether the brain is developing, therefore becoming more skilled, or if its evolving due to the fact that the world outside of our brain is also evolving, which allows our brain to create a bigger vision of what?s happening outside of our brain.
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Most of our truth and false settles down from a community, our knowledge and believe is tied to what our community is tied to. We believe because it is proven or because we were told and believe it. In the past people believe the world is flat and that there is a cliff at the end of the world. However, since we?ve been outer space we believe it is oval. The truth we once believe turned false. Absolute truth may exist and we might know it.
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People claim to know things due to what they believe and because their have used sense perception. However, can we actually depend on our senses one hundred percent? Do they always tell us the truth? All five senses, seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting, are important in developing thoughts and ideas, but the sense of sight typically sets itself above the others in its effectiveness at creating strong and lasting beliefs. In everyday life, the sense of sight is used to give evidence to what we believe. Logically, believing what you see makes sense. The ancient quote ?seeing is believing? supports the fact that experiencing or seeing something first hand makes one believe it.
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The vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge; it shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
Before assessing the statement, defining vocabulary is critical. In today?s world, we examine vocabulary as the words or phrases of a language and their understood meanings. In order to examine the role of vocabulary in which we communicate and gain knowledge in the different areas of knowledge, we must not only acknowledge vocabulary as a part of language but also as the highest expression of a paradigm, a theoretical framework, any system of symbols, techniques, tools, etc. ?In science, a paradigm describes distinct concepts or thought patterns in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context.?(Thomas Kuhn)
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However, isn?t refocusing our lens the best way to capture more of the picture. Art lets us shift our perception and communicate it to our species. Paintings, which are held of value, did not get to that position by mistake. It was a conscious decision of our species to consider it art. The perspective the artist provides is one that is possibly different from our own. Looking at the night sky everyone sees something different, but we all have Van Gough?s Starry Night to interpret together.
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Some of our senses are not as evolved as those of animals; for instance, our hearing ability is bleak compared to that of bats, which can orient their flying according to sound signals that we could never even hear. Or, consider our smell ? we use our smell to barely identify some distinct odours, while dogs can track a person by simply smelling the places where he stepped. So, apparently our reality is quite different from the reality that a bat or a dog experiences.
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For example, Jargon is defined as specialized or specific vocabulary that is used in a particular profession, whether it be a doctor or a pilot. The advantages to having Jargon in professions, is that it creates new words that can only be associated to that specific job, which would make it easier for the professionals of those jobs to convey ideas to one another by using the specific vocabulary, or jargon, instead of trying to use colloquial language to convey the same ideas.
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Knowledge is generated through the interaction of critical and creative thinking. Evaluate this statement with reference to different areas of knowledge.
People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, empathically and reasonably. They use tools that critical thinking offers- concepts and principles that enable them to analyse, assess and improve thinking. Whilst creative thinking is a way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that suggests unorthodox solutions (which may look unsettling at first). Creative thinking can be stimulated both by an unstructured process such as brainstorming, and by a structured process such as lateral thinking.
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Support: Ethos: Coach Herb Brooks has accidental ethos in his speech because he is the coach of the team. Had he not been an expert in hockey or one of the best coaches in America, he would not be the coach and therefore he has the respect of everyone around him. Pathos: This scene appeals mostly to pathos. As Coach Brooks said using logos, that they are going lose against the USSR, he uses the pathos appeal to make them believe they can win the game.
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Lastly, there are theoretical models. These are imaginative mental constructions made to conceptualize observed phenomena. They are usually imagined mechanisms that are described with analogies to familiar processes. For instance, in physics, the ?billiard-ball model? of gas is a perfect example of a theoretical model. Although it is intended to represent an underlying structure of a physical system, it is merely a symbolic representation that is developed into a theory that explains the phenomena as a model. A relevant knowledge issue concerning theoretical models would: to what extend can models give a realistic and accurate representation of reality?
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Hence Art can be an area of knowledge because it shows the observers the knowledge of emotions via sense perception as a way of knowing. An artist adds to his painting what he feels, for example he may use dark colours if he is feeling gloomy and sad at the time. A spectator sees in the painting what he feels. For example, a painting of a dead insect will make someone sad while someone angry. It depends a lot on one?s perception and perspective.
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Math is a system which has its roots in numbers, mathematical operators, variables etc. These things form the fundamentals of mathematics and can be considered as words in the language English. This means that if there is certain mathematical entity in nature such as length or breath, then we use numbers to compare and express these entities and mathematical operators such as multiplication to further calculate the area, hence making work like carpentry easier.
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This article explained how the process of math is potentially useful in discovering the cure for cancer. I will discuss how this discovery came about and why we should never stop learning the higher levels of math. Mathematical research is the prime example of using reason in human life. In a recent study that combined math and medicine, researchers have proved that patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be cured.
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can ultimately prescribe a conviction (?Crime?). In this paper I will be discussing about how emotion has a great effect on Psychology and how it plays a huge role while considering Criminal Behavior. Psychological studies prove that Criminal behavior is not only affected by Environment but also Genetics and Cognition. So when a person does commit criminal behavior, there are other factors related to it. It is proven by studies that a gene of Criminal Behavior can be gained if it is in one?s inheritance, but may be submissive if the environment and cognition positively affects the person.
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That which can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence. (Christopher Hitchens). Do you agree?
Believing is a prerequisite for mere assertions to become knowledge and we cannot believe what we cannot logically justify and justifications are founded on sound evidences. However the knowledge issue arising here is whether we dismiss all the assertions that are not supported by evidence. It is quite impossible to find proof for each fact or assertion that we learn. We believe that we can rely on our memories and that memories are usually accurate. However, in the history of litigation there are enough examples of eyewitnesses giving vague and hazy accounts which hamper rather than aid the course of law.
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Why a day is divided into 24 parts? On asking from various people, I found the reply that ?since it is been taught to us and we have seen all others following the same, that is why we too have not questioned anything.? This psychology prevents people from investigating and they adopt the knowledge while considering it as ?Obvious? and from here onwards cultural impact on knowledge gets started. This example suggests that what our culture teaches us we start following the same.
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In your opinion, should an atheist who does not believe in God or the afterlife follow the same moral rules as a Christian who does believe in these things?
Just as the Euthyphro Argument asserts that if God lacks reasons for his commands they become arbitrary, then by the same logic a person following principles solely because they are set down by their religion is doing so blindly; they abide by the rules only because they are ?established? doctrines. The rationale behind why these rules are put into place is ignored and thus the usefulness of having these rules is overlooked. According to this argument, if God had no factors or justifications as to why something is good or why something is bad, then these rules could be seen as random.
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Therefore, there exists no absolute proof to irrefutably neither verify nor falsify scientific theory; thus, it is claimed that all theories can only be assumed to be closer to ?truth? but can never be truly proven to be totally correct. The assumption that scientific theories are completely reliable can be counterclaimed; then why are some scientific theories so convincing that humans perceive to be real knowledge? This is best known to be ?knowledge-by-authority?, as we are becoming increasingly trusting in the scientific method used in deducing scientific theories.
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TOK How do these considerations (of age, identity) play a role in convictions? Are there ever justifications for falsely sentencing a man to death? If not, is it at least understandable?
In any cases, however, it cannot be justified to sentence an innocent person to death. It is not understandable at least to execute wrongfully convicted people because mistake in judgment cannot be corrected and justice system cannot make the person come back to life after death. Most of the prosecution?s case rested on eyewitness testimony. Is this enough evidence to convict a man? Was there any other evidence to support or refute the testimony? To what extent should or can eye witness testimony be used in court cases? Eyewitness testimony is not enough evidence to convict a suspect.
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In natural sciences, that have a larger degree of certainty, language does not change the results. There are several reasons for which my point of view can be considered righteous. As a first example, in 1974 two researchers whose names are Loftus and Palmer decided to make an experiment regarding this issue. The participants were 45 students who were asked to answer questions regarding a video in which two cars bumped each other. The critical question was "About how fast were the cars going when they *** each other?".
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The genesis of the women?s liberation movement came from the violent reactivity to the male chauvinism, women liberation sort to rebel against the denial of their rights and to trying to seek dominion over their status in society. The denial and discrimination on the account to social equality, voting ability and equality as a member of society fuels the bohemian nature of this movement. On a bid to rebel, the women liberation took on equally violent as its anti-thesis; in its form there becomes dysfunctional and insatiable as the antagonist it seeks to destroy.
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