• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology Written By Mark Costa The two approaches I will be looking at in this essay are 'behavourism' and 'humanism'. Apart from the fact that one of them is scientific and the other is not, I have chosen these two as they have very different aspects of studying and interperatation that interests me. Psychology evolved through three subjects philosophy, biology and physics. It developed through stages and views, firstly with Psychoanalysis, behaviarism, cognitive, humanistic and lastly biological. Behaviourists believed that we are shaped by the way our behaviours are rewarded. Behaviourists want results, by which they can check measure and observe on the stimulus and the reacted response. Humanists believe that every human being in the world is unique and also that there will never be any two people whom are identical. This relates to the belief on genetics and the experiences we go through in life are different from each other. Through 'ethics' there is a rule that no mental or physical harm should come to a participant of an experiment carried out on a psychological basis. Although in Behaviourism it is believed that animals are practically and ethically more convenient to test. ...read more.

Middle

This process is when a stimulus which brings about no response in a human or animal, until it is associated with another. Pavlov carried out an experiment on a dog to prove this theory. A contraption was made through which he could measure the amount of saliva this dog produced. A bell was rung and there was no significant change in the amount of saliva that was produced. Pavlov slowly began to stimulate the dog with dog food for it to smell, each ringing the bell. Pavlov began to notice that if he rang the bell yet showed no food, the dog would begin to produce siliva in anticipation of it. John Watson realised the potential of this idea, and started the behaviourist movement in 1913, when he wrote an article called, 'Psychology as the behaviourist views it'. This was followed by behaviourists; John Watson, Edward Thorndike and Beirs Frederick Skinner, carried on with Pavlov's theory of 'classical conditioning' forming their own theories on all aspects of human learning. The Humanism movement developed in the America in the early 1960's, where it was believed that it would replace the two other main approaches in psychology at the time; behaviourism and psychoanalysis. ...read more.

Conclusion

Behaviourists have done a lot for psychology in the mainstream by, creating experimental methodologies, which have been very effective to the topic over all. Strengths of humanism are that, it helped people to realise, that it is important to study the human mind and the experiences that people go through. It helped, to stop other approaches becoming too extreme in ideas that were incorrect, and by emphasising that it is important for people to realise who they are, through, self-actualisation'. However ethnologists believe that the use of animals in their experiments only achieved 'artificial learning'. Cognitive psychologists believe that behaviourism, ignores important mental process in learning, hence their results could not achieve accuracy or correct, and humanists disliked their rejection of the experiences humans went through. Whereas, the weak points to humanism are merely based on the way, humanists base their approach. The reasons being they choose to take a less scientific approach, hence they do not have a large impact on the mainstream of psychology. Although these two approaches in psychology have a great effect on the subject, they have weak points but together the five main approaches help us complete an idea of how to perceive people in general. Through comparing both scientific and non-scientific you can use the strengths of both views in order to complete and overall perception of psychology. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Zoology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Zoology essays

  1. Using the Grounded Theory to explore people's views on animal use: What factors influence ...

    Therefore if people do not know a great deal about animal use then they dislike discussing it. Further into the interview, the same participant comments on the notion that if people are more supportive of animal use, whether that represents a lack of knowledge or that they just do not

  2. Show How Principles, Ideals and even Facts Are Corrupted By Powerful individuals to suit ...

    One of these is their fear of the return of Jones who for them symbolises all the oppression that they were under in the past. By threatening the return of Jones, Squealer can make the animals more passive in their attitudes because in their minds Jones is the ultimate symbol

  1. Animal Behaviour - Tinbergens Four Whys, Where are we now?

    TINBERGEN's question were correct at the time of going to press, ethology was only just starting out as a field, but if the structure of ethology isn't evolved then we may find ourselves unable to approach new areas of study or even worse get sidetracked down one line, not answering the other questions as they are seen to be outdated.

  2. Evolution Essay

    Natural selection consists of three types of selections. One, directional selection. Two, stabilizing selection. Finally, sexual selection. Direction selection creates new features that aid a species to adapt to its environment. Directional selection produces a never ending change in the species toward the more complex characteristic. Under the circumstance that a species is already greatly adapted to its environment, stabilizing selection initiates.

  1. This study attempts to explore the basis of people's fear of animals.

    There was also a significant difference on perceived fear as related to gender, with women being notably more fearful of ten animals. Previous Research and Studies Bennett-Levy and Marteau perceive their results to be supportive of Seligman's "biological preparedness". It could also be interpreted so as to supporting the Social

  2. Why do we strive to achieve?

    I believe everyone would make similar choices. That is not to say that the rat should be mistreated and harmed in a cruel manner. There is an ethical way to go about everything. There is great deal that can be learned from animal testing and we would be foolish not to take advantage of it.

  1. Investigating the effect that group size has on the vigilant behaviour of flocks of ...

    This was repeated to the same group about 5-10 times, starting from the beginning again as soon as the previous scan was completed. We tended to use less repetitions for larger groups and10 repetitions for smaller groups. Data collection was stopped several times as the group size changed, new birds arrived and birds left.

  2. The Medicinal Potential of the Poison Dart Frog.

    These small frogs scour the leaf litter within their natural environment looking for a variety of arthropods including beetles, millipedes and flies. In tests where captive bred frogs fed with fruit flies were raised alongside frogs with leaf litter from their native environment only the native frogs incorporated toxins (Daly et al.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work