• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology Written By Mark Costa The two approaches I will be looking at in this essay are 'behavourism' and 'humanism'. Apart from the fact that one of them is scientific and the other is not, I have chosen these two as they have very different aspects of studying and interperatation that interests me. Psychology evolved through three subjects philosophy, biology and physics. It developed through stages and views, firstly with Psychoanalysis, behaviarism, cognitive, humanistic and lastly biological. Behaviourists believed that we are shaped by the way our behaviours are rewarded. Behaviourists want results, by which they can check measure and observe on the stimulus and the reacted response. Humanists believe that every human being in the world is unique and also that there will never be any two people whom are identical. This relates to the belief on genetics and the experiences we go through in life are different from each other. Through 'ethics' there is a rule that no mental or physical harm should come to a participant of an experiment carried out on a psychological basis. Although in Behaviourism it is believed that animals are practically and ethically more convenient to test. ...read more.

Middle

This process is when a stimulus which brings about no response in a human or animal, until it is associated with another. Pavlov carried out an experiment on a dog to prove this theory. A contraption was made through which he could measure the amount of saliva this dog produced. A bell was rung and there was no significant change in the amount of saliva that was produced. Pavlov slowly began to stimulate the dog with dog food for it to smell, each ringing the bell. Pavlov began to notice that if he rang the bell yet showed no food, the dog would begin to produce siliva in anticipation of it. John Watson realised the potential of this idea, and started the behaviourist movement in 1913, when he wrote an article called, 'Psychology as the behaviourist views it'. This was followed by behaviourists; John Watson, Edward Thorndike and Beirs Frederick Skinner, carried on with Pavlov's theory of 'classical conditioning' forming their own theories on all aspects of human learning. The Humanism movement developed in the America in the early 1960's, where it was believed that it would replace the two other main approaches in psychology at the time; behaviourism and psychoanalysis. ...read more.

Conclusion

Behaviourists have done a lot for psychology in the mainstream by, creating experimental methodologies, which have been very effective to the topic over all. Strengths of humanism are that, it helped people to realise, that it is important to study the human mind and the experiences that people go through. It helped, to stop other approaches becoming too extreme in ideas that were incorrect, and by emphasising that it is important for people to realise who they are, through, self-actualisation'. However ethnologists believe that the use of animals in their experiments only achieved 'artificial learning'. Cognitive psychologists believe that behaviourism, ignores important mental process in learning, hence their results could not achieve accuracy or correct, and humanists disliked their rejection of the experiences humans went through. Whereas, the weak points to humanism are merely based on the way, humanists base their approach. The reasons being they choose to take a less scientific approach, hence they do not have a large impact on the mainstream of psychology. Although these two approaches in psychology have a great effect on the subject, they have weak points but together the five main approaches help us complete an idea of how to perceive people in general. Through comparing both scientific and non-scientific you can use the strengths of both views in order to complete and overall perception of psychology. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Zoology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Zoology essays

  1. Investigating the effect that group size has on the vigilant behaviour of flocks of ...

    Finally the best predictor variable table (table 4) show that all of the predictor variables explain only 17.4% of the variance in the log of the look, as opposed to just the best predictor variable, log of the group size, explaining 15.9% of the variance.

  2. Using the Grounded Theory to explore people's views on animal use: What factors influence ...

    In reference to animal use one participant sums up this theme; "I don't think people really want to know, people don't want to know anything - they don't want to know what life's like in prison, its just one of those things"(P12, 89-91).

  1. Why do we strive to achieve?

    I believe everyone would make similar choices. That is not to say that the rat should be mistreated and harmed in a cruel manner. There is an ethical way to go about everything. There is great deal that can be learned from animal testing and we would be foolish not to take advantage of it.

  2. Show How Principles, Ideals and even Facts Are Corrupted By Powerful individuals to suit ...

    Looking at their situation in such a light, the animals can romanticise that whatever is happening in their lives now, it can't be as bad as when they had no 'equality' under Jones: But they were happy in their work; they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything

  1. Are non-human animals conscious?

    may be death such behaviour must either be genetically channelled or a result of mental connections. Obviously the former is possible, but it is pertinent to say that the raids are very similar to the intercommunity raids of the Yanomam´┐Ż people of the Amazon (2).

  2. How have Human Beings evolved to their current position in the world

    This evidence is significant to the theory of evolution as it displays the way in which the bones have become modified in adaptation to different styles of life and also implies that this structure of bones has been inherited from a common ancestor. German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer (1828)

  1. "Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of Ecologism as a new ethic."

    That is, they have value in and of themselves, quite apart from the value that human beings may place on them. It is a biocentric, or life-centred approach that places other species and ecosystems at the same level with the human world.

  2. Animal Behaviour - Tinbergens Four Whys, Where are we now?

    Also that a central issue in behaviour development seems to be the question raised by the fact that so many behaviour patterns can be said at the same time innate and learned or partly innate or partly learned. Different components of complex behaviour have different origins but he was keen

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work