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University Degree: Psychometrics

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  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of research methods.

    On the other hand advantages of field experiments is that behaviour is natural with know demand characteristics to effect quality of results. Field experiments have a greater external validity. Another type of experiment is Quasi, this type of experiment resembles some of the characteristics of an experiment but not with the quality of a "true" experiment. Draw backs with this experiment are that there can be know direct manipulation, so the experimenter doesn't have complete control, also random allocation isn't possible.

    • Word count: 1208
  2. Identify the basic elements of an experiment. Discuss how using a control group in an experiment allows the researcher to make causal interpretations.

    A hypothesis is a predicted relationship between variables and a tentative solution to researchers' problems (Mcguigan, 1993). If the hypothesis is proved as true, a theory is established. The hypothesis is true if independent variable produces lawful changes in dependent variable (Mcguigan, 1993). Independent variable is a stimulus or circumstance presented in the experiment and is manipulated by experimenters. The response or participant's behavior change which the experimenters measured is the dependent variable (Liebert, 1995). The stimulus-response relationship may influences by extraneous variable that operates in the experiment in addition to the independent variable, causing incorrectness of data.

    • Word count: 534
  3. "Psychologists have argued that much research into obedience tells us little about events in the real world" To what extend can finding from obedience research be applied beyond the research setting?

    The 'real' participant acted as the 'teacher' and the 'learner' was in fact an actor. In the condition, the learner was in another room, with no voice contact with the teacher. After each wrong answer an electric shock was delivered (although none were really given) with an increase of 15 volts each time up to 450 volts. All 40 participants continued to at least 300-volts level and 65% continued to the full 450 volts. Milgram extended his research to explore the different situational factors that led participants to obey or disobey.

    • Word count: 1788
  4. Why do people obey?

    He was given a 45-volt shock to prove the authenticity of the machine. When the procedure began the experimenter instructed the subject to increase the shock level after each successive wrong answer. The learner did not actually receive any shocks. As the fake shocks began to be delivered the learner could be heard protesting in pain. When the shock level reached extreme danger he could no longer be heard protesting. Many subjects pleaded with the experimenter to stop. The experimenter responded with verbal prods.

    • Word count: 1986
  5. "The socio-biological theory suggests that we form relationships with people who we feel will be best for the survival of our genes, men select women who are fertile, and women pick men who are able to provide for a child, as well as fertility"

    There are a number of studies which I have considered in relation to the matching hypothesis. Walster et al. performed a study in 1966 known as the computer dance. It found that people of a higher attractiveness were given a higher rating than those of less attractiveness, regardless of how attractive the person rating them was. Which of course, did not support the matching hypothesis. However, this could be in some aspects due to the fact that the participants felt less worried about rejection, as the first date had already been set up and accepted, reducing the chance of rejection and loss of self-esteem.

    • Word count: 3270
  6. The Effects of Classical Conditioning on Human Salivation Rate by Utilising Sweets and the Term "Cellar Door".

    Without the presence of a significant p value we are forced to accept our null hypothesis. Therefore we draw conclusions that render Pavlov's theories ineffective. However if our results were of greater significance proving our hypothesis to be correct, it could perhaps have been stated that Pavlov's theories really are effective. INTRODUCTION: The experiment that we performed has its roots in Classical Conditioning; a theory stating that we learn by associating different stimuli to innate bodily reflexes. Also called "Pavlovian Conditioning" due to its founder, the physiologist Ivan Pavlov.

    • Word count: 1989
  7. Ethics Essay - "Research should lead to a better understanding of ourselves and to the enhancement of the human condition and promotion of human welfare"

    Investigators should recognise that, in our multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society and where investigations involve individuals of different ages, gender and Social background, the investigators may not have sufficient knowledge of the implications of any investigation for the participants .It should be borne in mind that the best judge of whether an investigation will cause offence may be members of the population from which the participants in the research are to be drawn. Whenever possible the investigator should inform the participants of the objectives of the investigation.

    • Word count: 1154
  8. An Ethical Consideration of the Work of Milgram - Stanley Milgram carried out a series of studies in 1963 and 1973 related to obedience to authority.

    Milgram also sought the advice and opinions of forty other psychiatrists before carrying out his studies, though it may have been more judicious to consult a cross section of the general public, the type of people who would make up his participants. Deception Milgram's participants were grossly deceived, they believe that they actually were administrating electric shocks to a randomly chosen learner. In fact the learner was a confederate of Milgram's, Mr.Wallace and he did not receive any electric shocks, he was not even in the room, what the participant believed to be the cries and protests of this man was merely a tape recording.

    • Word count: 856
  9. Design Research on Teenage fatherhood.

    In this case the casual law entails that teenage fatherhood is connected to delinquency. Since we are using the Qualitative approach the type of data we are going to collect must be data that can be somehow quantified. In this case the number of teenage fathers who are/ are not delinquents would want to be quantified. This would be our target population. In the case of this research, it is extremely unlikely to find a list existing of teenage fathers who have committed deviant acts. It is also a rare possibility that one may use a technique such as the Snowball Technique as it is a rather sensitive subject and is improbable that one person will refer you to others in a similar situation as his.

    • Word count: 687
  10. Zimbardo's Prison study: Do the ends justify the means?

    the study by Milgram about obedience is extremely unethical but its still to this day an important part of research, the same applies to the Prison Study by Zimbardo. You wouldn't be permitted to imitate any research of that sort in this present day. In addition you have to be aware that it isn't just how the Participants are treated that make a study unethical but as well as the wider ethical implication of the research.

    • Word count: 516
  11. Measuring attitudes in social/psychological research

    Thurston scale (1931) A list of statements representing a wide range of views in relation to a specific attitude object is prepared. These are then given to a group of judges who rate the statements on an 11-point scale, from positive to negative.

    • Word count: 438
  12. Level of attractiveness as a determinant of marriage

    Brown (1986), however, maintains that the matching phenomenon results from a well-learned sense of what is 'fitting', rather than a fear of being rebuffed. For Brown, then, we learn to adjust our expectations of rewards in line with what we believe we have to offer others. Walster et al. (1966) set up a 'computer dance' for students, in which they were allocated partners at random. As each student arrived to buy their ticket for the dance, independent judges rated their physical attractiveness.

    • Word count: 4207
  13. When carrying out experimental research, one of the most important factors that psychologists have to consider is what variables need to be controlled and how that control is to be achieved.

    A control group was also used. This was in the second part of the experimental research. There were 150 students, who were shown a video and later were all asked questions, all but 50 students who were not questioned at all. This was the control group. The control group was used as a comparison group. Their answer to the question 'Did you see any broken glass?' was to be compared with those from the experimental group, who were asked questions about the video a week earlier.

    • Word count: 1263
  14. Psychology research has been said to lead to a better understanding of ourselves, the enhancement of the human condition and promotion of human welfare.

    their home) which would then limit the outside factors taking effect. By doing this the experiment would become true to life or ecologically valid. As the candidate would be acting directly in the manner as they normally would. However experimenters are obligated to follow the human rights act 1998, when making decisions regarding privacy and confidentiality. Deception is another important aspect to be explored in psychology. This ethical issue is occasionally broken, this is often so that the desired outcome can be achieved more easily, because the experimenter is able to gain a true view over the candidate and gain an advantage from aspects such as leading questions.

    • Word count: 994
  15. The Influence of Physical Attractiveness

    Studies conducted in this perspective often relate to human behaviors that apply to all humans. The study that was replicated by the researchers deals with the halo effect (John E. Stewart III, 1980). This effect states that physical attractiveness has advantage over those that are less attractive. The halo effect builds around the belief that more beautiful people are thought to have beautiful personalities and possess other socially desirable characteristics. The study that the researchers are going to replicate was from a study conducted by Sigall & Ostrove (1975).

    • Word count: 2523
  16. The Influence of Physical Attractiveness

    Studies conducted in this perspective often relate to human behaviors that apply to all humans. The study that was replicated by the researchers deals with the halo effect. This effect states that physical attractiveness has advantage over those that are less attractive. The halo effect builds around the belief that more beautiful people are thought to have beautiful personalities and possess other socially desirable characteristics. The study that the researchers are going to imitate is from a study conducted by (Sigall & Ostrove, 1975).

    • Word count: 2199
  17. An Experiment Into the Effect of Age on Serial Reproductive Memory

    They read it through twice and recalled it after delays varying from 15 minutes after study to several years later. To most readers, this North American folk tale is fairly bizarre, and it is not surprising that in attempting to recall it, readers omit details, change things, and import new material. Personal interests and experiences play a part in retelling stories from memory. But what is most interesting is that Bartlett's readers (typically unconsciously) made the story more orderly and coherent within their own cultural framework.

    • Word count: 3281
  18. Memory is the mental function, in our brains, of retaining data, the storage system that holds the data and the retrieval of data. We cannot survive without memory because we would not remember how to do basic things to keep us alive.

    This is because we rehearse the first few words we hear (primacy) and the last few words are stored in our STM so are remembered instantly (recency). The middle words are displaced because of the limited capacity of STM but cannot be rehearsed as well as the first words so are lost. Glanzer and Cunnitz (1966) found that if a task was given to the participant in between being given the list of words and reciting them that only the primacy effect was shown.

    • Word count: 2530
  19. The Effect of Music on Performance of a Task

    The research method design being used is experimental. A laboratory experiment is going to be used. The task will take place in the form of a sheet of 30 anagrams. The design is going to be a repeated measures experiment. PB4: Evaluation of the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Chosen Research Method. One disadvantage of the research method is that it is not like real life. In a real situation participants may not have to be sat down doing a task with just music playing in the background. Their may be other confounding variables such as the volume of the music.

    • Word count: 863
  20. Factors influencing level of obedience in Milgram's Study

    3.The shocks increased gradually- only giving 15 volts more each time. I think that this was a big factor in increasing obedience because it means that the participant gradually becomes more committed. Increasing the shock by only a small amount each time makes the participant feel as though they have just given a shock which is only a small amount less painful than the one they are about to give, so they are more likely to continue increasing shocks. 4.The experimenter was always there watching the subject give the shocks. I think that the presence of the experimenter would have increased levels of obedience because if the participant is being watched

    • Word count: 897
  21. Milgram's study of obedience has been influential in the development of 'ethics'. Discuss the implications of the Milgram research in terms of the ethical issues it raises and in terms of its validity.

    Participants drew lots to decide whether they would be the 'teacher' or the 'learner'. Again deception occurred because the participant was always a 'teacher'. The 'learner' was a confederate of Milgram's. The participants watched while the 'learner' was strapped to a large generator. The participant was instructed to administer electric shocks to the learner; gradually increasing by 15 volts, for each incorrect answer the 'learner' gave (the participant was given a sample 45 volt shock so he knew what it felt like {!}). Switches were labelled as follows: - 'slight shock', 'danger', 'intense/severe shock' and 'XXX'.

    • Word count: 1522
  22. An Investigation into the Stroop Effect

    Another proposal of Schneider and Shiffrin was that automatic processing, ' is unaffected by capacity limitations - does not affect the performance of other tasks attempted at the same time.' The 'Stroop effect' argued that this opinion was not strictly correct. The 'Stroop effect' shows that automatic tasks can interfere with simultaneously performed consciously controlled processing. What the participants are asked to do in this experiment is to say what colour each word is typed in, in two lists. The first list's words that are colours are each coloured according to what they say, e.g.

    • Word count: 1732
  23. From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research, to what extent can such research be justified?

    However, natural experiments can raise various ethical issues. First, there can be the question of voluntary informed consent, in view of the fact that, the participants are often not aware that they are taking part in an experiment. Second, experiments carrying out natural experiments need to be sensitive to the situation in which the participants find themselves. People who have been exposed to a natural disaster such as a volcanic eruption may resent it if experimenters start asking them detailed questions about their mental health or psychological well being.

    • Word count: 540
  24. An experiment to see the effect of imagery on recall

    For example: in Spanish, the word lagartija means lizard. In English, the word would be broken down and read as "log-ar -tee-ja". The high imagery word would be 'log' and so it would be used as the key to recall the definition. Participants of this experiment would then have been told to imagine a lizard lying on top of a log. Like this, the stored image would help retrieve the actual meaning of the word*. The method of Loci is useful for recalling objects by visualizing a location.

    • Word count: 1961
  25. Is Personality Affected by Brain Activity?

    whereas someone who scores quite high is considered an extrovert (loud). It is unclear as to which particular part of the brain is involved in personality; a lot of research has been carried out in order to narrow it down, so to speak. It has been suggested that because in introverts and extroverts are quite different in their respective demeanours (the former is quiet and the latter is more outgoing) the particular areas of the brain concerning levels of arousal may be involved.

    • Word count: 3323

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