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University Degree: Accounting

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1. Analyse the debt of Hungary in the 1990's. Use economic theory to explain the relationship of debt with the macroeconomic aims and indicators.

According to John Sloman's Economics2 the economic growth means that there will be more goods and services for the people to consume, the rate of inflation means "the percentage increase in prices over a twelve-month period. The balance of payment shows the country's transactions with the rest of the world, and the exchange rate is the rate at which one national currency changes too another. And at last the unemployment rate is the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force."

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2. Accounting for Marketing. Financial analysis of a sweet shop.

Further finance will be needed to buy a brand new van for collecting stock, this will cost �10,500. By having a new van there will be less risk of maintenance problems and there is no need to pay for an MOT for the first 3 years. Then the costs for fitting out the premises with the relevant fixtures and fittings will be �15,000. The rest of the finance will be supplied by 2 share holders (who will act as directors)

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3. Investment appraisal methods. Evidence[1] suggests that, NPV (net present value), IRR (internal rate of return), and payback period are the three most popular method used by companies in decision-making. In this essay, the three methods would be discussed

In order to calculate NPV, we can simply add up all prevent value (PV) of cash inflows and outflows: The criteria for project selecting are fairly easy by using NPV method: we should only accept these projects with positive NPV, and reject these with negative NPV. In other words, only project with positive NPV will grow a company's market value. Furthermore, the NPV criterion is the criterion most directly related to stock prices (CFA curriculum, 2011, p26), as it measures the value of tock increased by the project's NPV. For example, an analyst could learn of a positive NPV project, but if the project's profitability is less than expectations, this stock might drop in price on the news.

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4. The essay will provide information related to management accounting, its nature and purposes. Information related to various cost accumulation and measurement techniques will also be provided.

Management accounts are only prepared internally as when it is required by the managers within an organisation. Since management accounts are for internal purposes only, the format of management accounts is entirely at management discretion. There are no strict rules to govern the way management accounts are prepared or presented. Each organisation can devise its own management accounting system and format of the reports. Management accounts focus on specific areas of an organisation's activities. Information produced through management accounts are used to aid a decision rather than to be an end product of a decision.

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5. This case is written by me, an accountant, on Jeremy Langers request to analyze the performance of his business in first three and half weeks. His business is not public so my analysis is not going to be constrained by GAAP. I am assuming that apart fr

Last but not the least, I have taken some significant assumptions in analysis and request you contact me if you find any of these assumption incorrect. Acronyms: |You |Jeremy Langer | |GAAP |Generally Accepted Accounting Principles | |CRA |Canada Revenue Department | MEMO To: Jeremy Langer From: Accountant (me in this case) Re: To know the performance of the business for first three and half weeks. Context and Users Before we can proceed to discussing the treatment of specific issues, I assume that you are na�ve user of financial statements and I need to determine the context for the recommendations that will be made.

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6. Calculate the Gross Profit Margin, Current Ratio, Acid Test Ratio, Average Settlement Period for Trade Receivables, Average Inventories Turnover Period, Gearing Ratio and Price/Earnings Ratio for Uffington Plc for years 2008 and 2009.

120p 10.9 times 100p 10.0 times Earnings Per Share 11p 10p note 1 Calculate Earnings Per Share first before completing the Price/Earnings Ratio calculation Overview 2009 2008 Gross Profit Margin 34.85 30.00 % Current Ratio 0.84 0.86 times Acid Test Ratio 0.42:1 0.43:1 Average Settlement Period For Trade Receivables 13.3 12.2 days Average Inventories Turnover Period 42 43 days Gearing Ratio 14.13 15.44 % Price/Earnings Ratio 10.9 10 times Question 2 Comparing the Gross Profit Margin, Current Ratio, Acid Test Ratio, Average Settlement Period for Trade Receivables, Average Inventories Turnover Period, Gearing Ratio and Price/Earnings Ratio for Uffington Plc for years 2008 and 2009 with the industry average.

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7. As the management accountant of a local NHS hospital this report has been written for the senior management to help identify, explore and analyse some of the issues raised by Gordon Brown in comments surrounding poor management within the NHS. The

It is important, before trying to explain the possible reasons for the varying costs within procedures that we understand what costing methods are being employed by the NHS. The NHS faces increasing scrutiny and pressure from the media, government and stakeholders in regards to its financial and efficiency levels, across the organisation. In the past ABC was only found in the private sector however, the increased spotlight from the government, media and general public has meant the public sector being viewed in a more 'business like' manor, hence the promotion of ABC into NHS.

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8. Analysis of the market and financial basis for a pizza franchise chain in Arizona.

Although the three Senior Franchisee stores are the best indicator for weekly revenue, the value needed to be higher to incorporate the poor performance of the Arizona stores. Management believes that their performance will be improved based on corporate marketing efforts and new management, allowing for slight revenue growth. Despite this, there is no reason to believe that new restaurants in this market will be any different that other stores already in the system. When deciding on a single point estimate, we must also analyze the total revenue numbers for the pizza industry as a whole.

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9. Entity theory

It stated that while shareholders were entitled to dividends; these would be at the discretion of the business. Shareholders would also be regarded in the same way as creditors in the sense that although companies required their capital for start up; their only future purpose would be to provide additional funds through further investment and loans. The advantages gained from entity theory are its ability to act as a deterrent against financial fraud upon the business. In the past fraud through business was very commonplace and as a result the entity theory was created to prevent the likelihood of such events occurring.

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10. Cost and management

This gives more accurate cost than the cost arrived at using a Plantwide rate. Comments on the calculations The plantwide rate currently used is �10 per labour hour (see Appendix 1). This means that each product is given a share of the production overheads, which is proportional to the number of labour hours taken to produce it in total, in both departments. However, this does not take into account the fact that Department B is more costly than Department A, and that it has more machine hours than labour hours, which indicates that production takes place using machinery not direct labour.

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11. Agency Theory

The Theory effectively restated the Smith puzzle as to how to acquire an agent (Executive-manager) to act in the best interests of principle (shareholder-owners) while the agent has both more information and different interests than the principal. The theory attempts to deal with two specific problems, first is Agency Problem this arises when the goals of the creditor and the shareholder have conflictive ideas on how the company should be run. And second is where the principle and agent reconcile different Tolerance for Risk. Some problems that have been highlighted in further studies are moral hazard where by the agent takes unobserved actions for their own self interest.

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12. What get measured gets managed What needs managed gets measured

Drucker claims that measurement is the principle tool for any organisation to achieve their management goals. This discussion will be looking at how recent developments by researchers in managerial accounting have sought to both improve existing and produce new measurement techniques in order to manage an organisation effectively and hence prove the above statement to be true. The development of an effective measurement system is a crucial task for any organisation exposed to tough competition. Effective measurement, however, must be an integral part of the management process. It is simply good management practice to find out how well programs are doing and to use this information for program planning, implementation, and improvement.

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13. Financial Accounting

The company in discussion in this assignment is Beyond Fuel Ltd. It manufactures and sells a single product, EcoPlus, which is a fuel saving devise for motor vehicles. Differences between an economist's break-even chart and an accountant's break-even chart. A break-even chart is a graphical representation of the relationship between total sales output and total generated revenue. Its sole use is to determine the break-even point whose analysis helps consider if the venture is running at a profit or a loss.

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14. Purinex. Inc

Selain itu bangkrut, apa adalah risiko lainnya kepada perusahaan dalam situasi seperti ini? Purinex Purinex adalah obat-penemuan dan pengembangan perusahaan yang berbasis di Syracuse.Baru York yang berusaha untuk mengkomersilkan terapi berdasarkan senyawa purin obat-platform pengembangan.Purin adalah alami molekul yang memainkan peranan penting dalam berbagai proses biokimia.Purinex telah mengembangkan ss Prosedur untuk menciptakan molekul kecil yang bertindak sebagai. Selektif agonis (aktivator) atau antagonis (blocker) untuk spesifik reseptor purin i n membran sel.Molekul-molekul ini dapat memulai respon fisiologis atau memblokir aktivasi reseptor oleh molekul pensinyalan endogen diproduksi.Purinex 's Tujuannya adalah untuk mengembangkan produk yang menimbulkan efek farmakodinamik reseptor tanpa menghasilkan hasil yang

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15. Why do firms borrow capital that has to be repaid rather than finance a firm with 100% equity?

The firm than repays the bank with interest over time. The reasons as to why firms choose bank borrowing is that it cost low due to that there is no marketing expenses as the loan is negotiated directly with the bank. The procedure is quick and easy and also flexible in terms of negotiation if the economic circumstances of a company changes. However, on the other hand, there are other factors the firm needs to consider such as the cost that is involved in it, for example, the bank might request the borrower to pay an arrangement fee, normally a percentage of the loan.

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16. Budgetary Control

Nonetheless, a definition given by Webster's Dictionary is good from a business perspective (Emmanuel, Otley, & Merchant, 1990). It states that control is the application of policies and procedures for directing, regulating and coordinating production, administration and other business activities to achieve the corporation's goal (Emmanuel, Otley, & Merchant, 1990). Budgetary control is one of those management accounting system. "Planning and control are two sides of the same coin" (Emmanuel, Otley, & Merchant, 1990) and budgetary control effectively considers them together for a company to grow. A budget is an important aspect of any organisation. They are used to plan, coordinate, communicate, motivate, control and evaluate the various actions of the firm (Drury, 1997).

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17. Economics (micro and macro)

Diminishing returns is illustrated as these figures show that in order to produce higher levels of unit X, more and more units of Y will need to be given up. This shows that if the country produces a large number of X units, they will not be making full use of the resources available to them as they are sacrificing too many units in order to produce extra 100 units of X. (d) If the country wants to produce more units of Y, it will need to sacrifice more units of X.

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18. Tax Law and Accounting

Objectives of modern income tax statutes Historically, tax laws served the sole purpose of revenue collection for the treasury. Modern income tax laws have developed to serve two broad objectives. The fundamental objective of income tax laws remained to generate revenue for the administration to finance the expense side of its budget. However, the evolution of modern tax laws allows the government to achieve various socio-economic objectives. Modern income tax laws serve as important fiscal policy tools of governments to influence the economy.

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19. Frantek Case Analysis

(Abdolmohammadi, 2002) Unfortunately they have encountered some technical difficulties with the boards and were not able to meet the deadlines; because of this some contract revisions were necessary. Frantek has changed several parts of the agreement in order to comply with Conte, and this will have ramifications on the way that the financial statements are prepared, the change in the agreement will need to be considered in terms of the way that revenues will be accounted for, as Conte is agreeing to still purchase the outstanding boards, but instead of paying cash for them they will be reducing the loan made to Frantek by that amount.

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20. Analysis of Strategic Management accounting

This identifies customer groups and shows how profits vary between them. This is done by assigning costs and revenues to major customers or customer groups rather than to units or products. This information can be used to achieve profit maximisation by eliminating the less profitable customers. This approach could be beneficial to Davis Ltd as the cost of each customer project varies significantly and it could identify if resources are disproportionally distributed. However, Robert Kaplan (1992)1 suggested there are 3 customer types that should be retained even in the absence of profits; this is because they can provide non-financial benefits to a company.

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21. EQUITY, CASH FLOW, AND NOTES ANALYSIS PAPER

Symantec uses it cash position to help quick secure mergers. Symantec's uses its cash positioning to lower the perception of risk for stockholders and investors. Symantec is one of the world leading software focused merger and acquisitions companies. Symantec has been able in achieve two competitive advantages as a company that essentially grows by taking over new companies; using its innovations and corporate culture to communicate from the management down to the employees with little miscommunication. The company's vision is clear and its ability to easily adapt new companies to its growing structure has been successful.

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22. Introduction to Management Accounting

Advertising costs are fixed costs because it does not change with output. Therefore I will add �72,000 to the fixed costs of �262,800. �72,000 + �262800 = �334,800. To get the revised break even point I need to divide the new fixed costs of �334,800 by the contribution per unit which I have already worked out to be 1.8. Revised Break Even= 334,800 = 186000 1.8 I will now work out the new revised margin of safety like I did for the original margin of safety.

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23. Manchester Airport Financial Performance

ratios below: Profitability Ratios - These ratios evaluates if the firm is getting a good/satisfactory return on all the invested capital in the business. It is essential in comparing businesses in the industry. Profitability ratios consist of Gross profit to sales, Return on assets and Return on Equity ratios. Liquidity Ratios - These ratios is concerned with the firms ability to meet up with its financial obligations (debts). It gives indication of the financial health of the company. If the firm cannot meet up with its debt repayment, then it is no use investing in such business because of the level of debt.

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24. Hero Honda Bajaj Accounting

This is evident that there is more than 100% asset creation in the span of last five years. On and average the accumulated depreciation for each year froms 37.5% of the Fixed asset values as shown in the chart below : In order to understand how efficiently HHML is utilizing its depreciation funds to build new assets one should also have a closer look at the depreciation amount for the particular year as against the assets creation and deletions for that particular year. The chart below shows HHML's yearly Net asset additions as against the depreciation charged for the same year.

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25. An overview of Cadbury Schweppes.

Cadbury Schweppes have expanded their business throughout the world by a programme of organic (growing from within) and acquisition (buying other companies) led growth. The business expanding from acquisition shows that the business is flourishing because they can buy out their rivals. Cadbury's confectionery business is organised into four different segments (regions) and six global functions, each region is focused on commercial operations in its geographical and product area. The four regions are: Britain Ireland, Middle East and Africa (BIMA); Europe; Americas and Asia pacific. The functions are global supply chain, global commercial, science & technology, human resources, finance and information technology.

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"Go as far as you can see; when you get there, you'll be able to see farther."

-J. P. Morgan, former accounting student

If you're highly organised, comfortable with quantitative subjects, and want to see what happens behind the scenes in the business world, then you might want to study accounting at university level. You can study accounting on its own, or as part of a joint degree with finance.

Good communication skills are indispensable in most careers related to accounting, so dont underestimate the importance of writing during your degree. Marked by Teachers can help you reach your full potential: study our collection of accounting essays, and before long you'll be constructing essays as elegant and well balanced as the accounting equation itself.

Depending on your degree, you might complete modules on economics and management, learn about financial and management accounting, and take a year's placement in industry. When you complete your degree, you might go on to get a higher degree, or pursue careers in finance, business, accountancy firms, or entrepreneurship.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.

1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
2. Do they answer the question directly?
3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
• Discuss the implications short-term capital flows into emerging countries have on the financial stability and the economic development of those countries.

"In conclusion, short-term capital inflows can be said to have grown faster than any other type of investment. The overall impact in recipient economies has been ambiguous. However, with reference to the recently experienced crises, large unregulated short-term flows have only proved to be volatile in nature, disturbing the economic and financial stability of the emerging nations. A clear pattern is identified, where short-term inflows are eventually reversed sharply causing currency crisis, banks and enterprises bankruptcies, dramatic reductions in output and economic activity in general. The benefits obtained by recipient countries were in many cases impaired by the dramatic outflows of capital. The expected progress to be brought about with financial liberalization was certainly not attained. Tobin (1997), cited in Rodriguez Y (2000), states that "experience has not, not yet anyway, vindicated current orthodox confidence that free global financial markets are the keys to global prosperity." Capital controls are proposed as a probable solution for developing markets in order to reduce the euphoria and the erratic ebbs, flows, and volatility of capital. What is essential is that policy negotiations keep sight of fundamental principles and remember that the financial system must serve the needs of the world economy, not the other way around. (Frank E, 1999)"

• Discuss the main theories of international finance and assess how each of them would pass Professor Buckley's test of standing up in the real world.

"In conclusion, there are three main factors, which are used to predict the future exchange rate in freely floating exchange rate system. 1. Expected change in spot rate 2. Difference in expected inflation and interest rate 3. Forward exchange premium or discount rate These three factors are directly related with each other. Due to the assumption that the international money markets are efficient, every factors will change rapidly if there are any changes in any other factors. However, the expected inflation rate is the most important variable that will lead to the change in other factors. So the exchange rate predictors always try to analyse the factors that can lead to the change in inflation rate, such as money supply, business cycle, productivity, and capacity utilisation. 1"

• State and analyse the arguments for the privatisation of public corporations.

"The reader must also be aware of the arguments against privatisation. It must be noted public enterprises still have a purpose in society. A PE gives the state control over monopoly power and profits in those areas where monopoly is unavoidable. For example, utilities such as water and electricity. Most opponents of privatisation indicate that privatisation is not always the answer as it corrupts the marketplace. Economic efficiency is concerned with the utilisation of scarce resources. Most private sectors reach certain levels of economic efficiency but they incur social and externality costs such as pollution and unemployment compensation. The government also incurs infrastructure costs. Also, privatisation does not necessarily mean that goods and services will be provided more cheaply or efficiently by the private sector than by the public sector. Public sectors play key roles in the development of countries but they manifest many problems as they are slow at developing and introducing new technologies and they are subject to over-frequent and damaging political intervention. Privatisation seems to offer a means of ridding the state of the financial burden of loss-making activities, while at the same time spreading share ownership. Privatisation when correctly conceived and implemented fosters efficiency, encourages investment, new growth and employment and frees public resources for investment in infrastructure and social programmes."