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University Degree: Political & International Economics

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Evaluate the arguments for and against UK entry into the eurozone.

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    On January 1 2001, the exchange rates of the participating countries were irreversibly set. Member states implemented a common monetary policy and the euro was introduced as legal currency. Eligibility for participation in the single currency depended on satisfying a number of criteria set out in the Treaty of Maastricht. Along with Denmark and Sweden, both also members of the European Union, the UK has decided to withhold its involvement in the single currency. For a country to take part in the single currency, it had to satisfy a series of criteria laid out by the Treaty of Maastricht.

    • Word count: 1867
  2. Discuss the Fukushima incident in the context of globalisation

    Plutonium was also found in soil nearby the area of the plant. These were all a sign for Japan that one, or even more, of the reactors had suffered meltdown. Natural disasters do often represent globalisation; presenting the best and the worst prospects. The Fukushima incident which struck Japan in March, for this reason, aids as a perfect example at explaining globalisation, and how it services our society. Numerous factors of globalisation are highlighted, consistent with the incident, illustrating just how planet earth, as a whole, will be impacted and therefore affecting some of globalization's processes.

    • Word count: 1366
  3. Analysis of the case for Heathrow Airport's Third Runway

    Having been in an economic depression, the UK government believed a third runway would help allow for a major economic boost, as it is one of the busiest airports in the world. Being a main airport hub in Europe, Heathrow wanted a third runway in order to keep its status as one of the major airports. With only two runways, Heathrow seemed to be falling behind other major airports in Europe with multiple runways. This provided motivation for airport officials and the government to promote motivation for the building of a third runway.

    • Word count: 1086
  4. Greek Financial Crisis. This essay will begin by identifying the financial problems and analyze its causes, followed by a discussion of the fiscal and monetary policies that can be applied especially in the eurozone context,

    Loss of credibility makes the situation worse as interest rates on existing debts rise, and Greece needs to borrow �50 billion this year to repay its bills (The Times 2010). Consequently, the European monetary union is put at risk, and the euro is likely to depreciate against other currencies. ?? Greece's financial problems are structural and they had a long period of incubation. Years of excessive government spending and failure to reform the economy have driven Greece into the hardest situation ever since the birth of the eurozone.

    • Word count: 1837
  5. To what extent have the processes of globalization created a fully inclusive global economy?

    The triad economies have a total contribution of 84% of the world in FDI (UNCTAD 1991).With, World Bank releasing figures. United States having a GDP of $5,930,700,000,000 in the same year (World Bank). United States is undoubtedly the biggest economy and still is the biggest economy. The triad economies had already strong foundations. After the Second World War, they were able to have great advantages due to technological advances during the industrial revolution. Able to be market leaders in particular sectors such as IT, Finance and Manufacturing.

    • Word count: 1883
  6. Nike Case Study

    Second, in light of the allegations against Nike, the company chose to respond reactively rather than proactively. Rather than addressing the allegations immediately and explaining how they were taking steps to prevent future misconduct, the company instead chose to try and detract attention from the real issues and claimed that the problems "had to do with public relations rather than actual factory conditions," which is effectively an attempt to blame others for their issues rather than addressing them. In doing so, Nike set a precedent of waiting to admit problems until they had become too large to continue ignoring, which became evident in their response to the lawsuit filed by Marc Kasky.

    • Word count: 1031
  7. EU Policy towards Competition and Industrial Affairs

    Therefore, consumers end up paying more for less quality. This is why cartels are illegal under EU competition law and why the European Commission imposes heavy fines on companies involved in a cartel. Since cartels are illegal, they are generally highly secretive and evidence of cartels is not easy to find. Controlling competition between companies is an area where the EU is particularly powerful and where its decisions are clearly felt by European citizens. The EU's control over competition policy gives it the power to rule on mergers, takeovers, cartels and the use of state aid.

    • Word count: 1460
  8. Free essay

    Stock Market Volatility Is Caused By Businesses Yet Detrimental To Business Activity And Profitability. Discuss.

    The capital market is where stocks and shares are traded nationally and is a key provider for long term finance for companies. The capital market is formed by two parts, the primary and secondary part. The primary involves in buying and selling new stocks and shares, and secondary involves in buying and selling existing stocks and shares. The main firms which buy stocks and shares are "the insurance companies, pension funds, investment trust, unit trust and other large financial institutions such as building societies" (A2).

    • Word count: 1338
  9. The law of comparative advantage forms the basis of international trade. Explain the above statement with reference to the trade theories of David Ricardo and Heckscher and Ohlin. To what extent do these trade theories explain the patterns of trad

    which was published in 1776 in 'The Wealth of Nations'. Adam Smith challenged the prevailing view in the 18th century international trade, that of mercantilism. The doctrine of mercantilism is based on the premise that for a country to increase its wealth it should discourage imports and encourage its exports. The resulting surplus of its exports would then allow the country to acquire precious metals, mainly in gold and silver. (Tariffs were used to restrict imports to cause a 'favourable trade balance').

    • Word count: 1982
  10. Governments role for the solution of financial crisis in several countries of the world

    However, they didn't get substantial success to achieve their goals. As a consequence, Federal Reserve introduced some new and non-traditional policies. For example first time in the history they extended loans to investment banks. Further, when bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the 4th largest US investment bank, caused the increase in financial crises in September 2008, Federal Reserve acted very gently by bailing out the world's largest insurance company American International Group (AIG), which was in a big trouble and was unable to pay off all sold insurance policies.

    • Word count: 1005
  11. On the Wealth of Nations

    And up to this point, he is one of only a few media personalities to critique both Bush and Obama clearly and without political motivation. The reading process was a lot slower than I am used to, although Smith's writing, which is perpetually quoted throughout the book, is very similar to Paine's. As a result I knew to read Smith's passages a couple of times immediately instead of rereading entire chapters. The reading picks up as O'Rourke piques interest by relating Smith's ideas to recent past and present economic decisions on both the Micro and Macro levels.

    • Word count: 1383
  12. Capitalism. The following paper presents an analysis of capitalism a system frequently regarded as the sole viable economical and political ideology (Heywood, 2003, p20). Discussions of the concepts and developments of the capitalistic system will be

    In its purest form - laissez-faire ("let them do") capitalist system was advocated by Adam Smith and later Milton Friedman and his Chicago School calling for free-market and reduced state intervention (Klein, 2007, pp49-53). However, in the aftermath of the Great Depression, a concept, suggested by John Maynard Keynes, was introduced which claimed that government intervention was essential in order to provide social security (Hague and Harrop, 2007, p145). The modern capitalistic systems are mostly regarded as a mixed economies lying somewhere between these two models.

    • Word count: 1618
  13. Budget of the EU

    (McDonald, 2005, p. 126) The size of the EU budget has been growing over the years. The budget has increased by almost a hundred billion euros from 1988 to 2009 and its current amount is about �147 billions. One reason for that is the increasing number of member states that need to receive financial help. (European Commission, 2009) The main priorities of budget spending are agriculture, structural operations, internal policies, external actions, administration and monetary resources. Table 1 shows the percentage spent on each category. Table 1: Appropriations for commitments Appropriations for commitments Delors 1 1988 - 1992 Delors 2 1993 - 1999 Agenda 2000 2000 - 2006 New MYFP 2007 - 2013 Agriculture 58.2% 48.2%

    • Word count: 1950
  14. Why the UK government regulates firms and markets.

    In the telecommunications industry you can see all of these three types of regulation; however, the first is the most prevalent within the telecommunications market. The UK telecommunications market was solely, apart from a small district within the area of Hull, provided by the post office and then when separated British Telecommunications (BT) until 1981 when Mercury Telecommunications was established. This was later followed in 1984 by the privatisation of BT, the UK government held a 49.8% remaining share of BT, which has subsequently also been sold (Parker, 2004).

    • Word count: 1535
  15. Frame of reference

    There are no big difference in interests between employer and employee. The task of labour is to fit within this framework. Therefore, unitarist theorists regard conflicts as abnormal activity, which is the temporary result of a lack of communication and management between employer and employee. With poor communication, conflict can arise from an employee's misunderstand of the direction of employer or organization. Conflict can also arise from poor management, and merely requires management to refocus itself. Different workers have different basic needs that need to be met.

    • Word count: 1766
  16. Researchers' Mobility in Turkey

    and the Supreme Council for Science and Technology (BTYK) in Turkey. T�BITAK is actually the primary institution, which is in charge of the National Science and Research Policy, while BTYK is for policy making and consultation. BTYK is the most important policy making body of research and science, which was established in 1983. The Council is authorized by the Prime Minister and its members are well- known representatives from different universities, the government and industrial experts. They meet twice a year in order to make decisions. BTYK gets help from various agencies in order to coordinate its activity.

    • Word count: 1812
  17. Competition, Enterprise and Industry in Turkey

    Background to carry out trading with the European Union Market Forces First of all, the most important factor to analyze from the European Union's point of view is connected to market forces. Ideally, demand and supply should determine all market movements, however, in Turkey, this is not exactly the case. In theory, the government of Turkey has declared its independence from regulatory agencies, but in practice, there are still some areas where prices are set. A good example to demonstrate this is the fact that the government did not allow global changes affect the prices and consumption level of energy in Turkey before the Parliamentary elections last year.

    • Word count: 1871
  18. Summary of Assessing the Impact of the Current Financial

    This brutal shock showed that there were serious problems in regulatory system in financial industry. The crisis quickly spread into real economy. It was not easy for firms to spend money on factories, equipment and acquisitions because of tight credits. Also, consumers tried to decrease their purchase. And this led to sharp falls in revenue of companies. In the end, the financial shocks shook the global economy overall. In the face of global economic recession, many corporate initiated to reduce foreign direct investment because of tighter credit conditions and falling corporate profits. According estimate by UNCTAD, world FDI flows are expected to have declined in 2008 by 21 percent.

    • Word count: 1158

    The benefits, since then, could become whatever Enron wanted them to be, regardless of the revenue generated. Thus, the door was left open to manipulation, and thus managed to inflate profits, even getting actual losses. This happened, for example, when Enron tried to join into the broadband market, teaming up with Blockbuster to sell movies "� la carte" on the Internet . The shares of Enron multiplied their value, but the technology did not work. But the system of valuation of shares allowed them to predict and account revenues, and keep millions, supposed to be generated by this Business.

    • Word count: 1826
  20. Was imperialism good for Europe? Was imperialism good for colonized regions?

    However, this does not mean that they did not encounter several problems. For instance, the British encountered problems of "race, language, and caste distinctions.2" Moreover, "Indian industrial efficiency was hampered by the British administration's neglect of technical education. 3" Consequently this led to diseconomies of scale as long run average cost of production increased as output decreased. Managing became challenging as, "maintaining...completely unskilled group[s] who had to bribe the jobbers to get and retain their jobs4" In contrast to India, China was hit by the "era of free trade imperialism.5" The British gained tremendously from the unequal treaties that enforced low tariffs, the legalization of opium, extra territorial rights, the freedom to travel within inland China, and the opening of 92 ports.

    • Word count: 1309
  21. Why do some organisations become multinational enterprises instead of exporting from their home country? Do the advantages of multinational production outweigh the disadvantages?

    John Dunning's eclectic paradigm sets out a framework to show why multinationals exist. First of all there are 'firm-specific advantages', these are advantages to the business which only they possess. These can include the use of secret technology within the firm, for example Dyson vacuums, or the use of highly regarded and developed brand names, such as Coca Cola, which is known to be one of the most recognizable phrases in the world. Other firm-specific advantages can include more effective management techniques, which will in turn have a positive effect on the productivity of the workforce; also a business may have marketing advantages over other firms if they focus a lot of skill towards highly effective advertising and promotional work.

    • Word count: 1376
  22. What type of market structure would you classify that is occupied by Innocent?

    "Every tonne we avoid emitting will reduce the risk of global warming getting worse." (www.innocentdrinks.co.uk) In 2004 Innocent became the biggest smoothie brand in the UK with 41% of the market share, with PJs being their closet rivals with 28% of he market share. It is important for Innocent to consider its market structure because it will influence the sort of competition Innocent will have to compete with. The market structure can be defined and sorted into four main categories.

    • Word count: 1031
  23. Free trade strategy

    Both will gain. Comparative advantage an ability of a country to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than some other country. In a two-good, two country model, one country may have an absolute advantage in both goods, but still have a comparative advantage in one that is to say that for which its absolute advantage was greatest or its absolute disadvantage least. The gains from trade based on comparative advantage. Before trade unless markets are very imperfect, the prices of the two goods are likely to reflect their opportunity costs.

    • Word count: 1968
  24. Corporate Governance in Slovenia

    Most recently there has been a growing trend in Slovenia of shareholders consolidating their positions3 with a view of a possible takeover in the key blue-chip companies such as, MERCATOR4, and PIVOVARNA LA�KO5 where the fund INFOND owns 25% and 24.91% respectively. Laws and regulations The Slovenian company law is generally tied to the general inter-EU legislations6, such as Securities Market Act (1999), Mergers and Acquisition Act (1997), the Dematerialized Act (1997) and the new Investment Funds Act (2002). The corporate regulations7 mean that the companies are split into two groups, the limited liability companies (d.o.o)

    • Word count: 1391
  25. Collapse of Central Planning

    There are several reasons that this system is unsustainable and therefore collapsed as it did. The main reason for which is the massive inefficiency that occur as a result of its implementation. This leads to wastage and therefore contradicts the basic economic problem of scarcity facing every economy. Scarcity as a definition is a population choosing between its needs and its wants, and in doing so making the most efficient usage of the scarce resources available. Inefficiency has two main forms Productive inefficiency and allocative inefficiency. Productive inefficiency is when firms in the economy do not produce at their lowest possible cost.

    • Word count: 1630

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

    "The conclusion that can be brought forth from such evidence is that FDI has both negative and positive advantages in the form of increased employment levels, freer financial market flows, stimulation of local economies and overcoming impediments to trade, equalising a larger economical benefit reaped from FDI, whereas the disadvantages include loss of national sovereignty, the 'race to the bottom, political instability and impacts of Greenfield investment upon the local environment. It is evident, however, that the advantages of FDI far outweigh the limitations that are presented, through the increase in wealth, the spurring of economical development and increased activity in developing nations, essentially, benefiting the globalised financial and business environment. REFERENCE LIST Athukorala, P. C., (2003) Foreign Direct Investment in Crisis and Recovery: Lessons from the 1997 - 1998 Asian Crisis, Australian Economic History Review, June 2003, Vol.41, No.2, pp.197-213 Asiedu, E., and Esfahani, H.S., (2001) Ownership Structure in Foreign Direct Investment Projects, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Nov 2001, Vol.83, No.3, pp.647-662 AtKearney (2004) Current News Release: China and India Jockey for the Top most Attractive Foreign Direct Investment Destination [Online] Available at:"

  • Compare and contrast NPV with IRR as a method of investment appraisal

    "I have come to the conclusion that the NPV method is a better method of appraising investment opportunities than the IRR method. Reason being, although IRR has similar attributes to NPV, it has yet too many problems that could lead to a wrong decision being made, such as ignoring the real world and having multiple IRR's in a situation. Also, when coming to choose between two projects, the NPV method would be better and more reliable discriminator than to use IRR. So in my opinion, I think that the NPV is the best method and therefore it should be the only method used in the investment appraisal. Assignment by: Chi-Man Lam Student ID No.: 02040652 Course Pathway: CATF2"

  • Evaluate the macroeconomic and structural effects of overseas investment during the period 1870-1913.

    "It seems there were notable adverse consequences of excessive overseas investment. However, there is opposition to this view in that keeping investment domestic would have ineffective; for example, McCloskey quoted famously that "by keeping savings at home, the British people could have had two Forth bridges, two bakerloo lines, two London housing stocks, two Port Sunlights". In addition British investment in overseas capital lowered the price of foreign foodstuffs and raw materials. This improved Britain's terms of trade by approximately 0.1% per annum. In conclusion it is difficult to state whether the overall macroeconomic and structural effect of overseas investment over the period 1870-191 was positive or negative."

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