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Organizational decision Making

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Introduction

Organizational decision Making Group Decision Making within the Organization Decision Making and Problem Solving, Including the Role of The Manager Introduction The purpose of this research is to provide an investigation of organizational decision-making. The study will include analysis of the process of decision-making, the sociological forces at play in that process, how groups make decisions, and the ways which participation in decision-making can benefit employees (the principal, school administrators and teachers) and the organization (the school) as a whole. Group decision making is defined as the process of arriving at a judgment based upon the input of multiple individuals. This paper focuses on the group level of decision making. Decision making is a part of nearly every aspect of a school administrator's activities. Principals must make decisions about objectives and plans for their school. They must decide how to direct, how to organize and how to control. In addition to forming their own decisions, principals must guide their subordinates to make decisions. In some cases, principals are simply part of a larger team of administrators and teacher leaders/teacher administrators, and so coordinate the efforts of the team as a whole to solve problems and make decisions. It is up to the principal to gather and evaluate information in order to determine whether a decision is needed. The Principal as Problem Solver Arriving at a decision is only part of the problem solving process; implementing the decision is a critical part of the process, as well. In some cases, implementation may require merely that the decision be communicated from one individual to another, both of whom are in accord about the implementation of the decision. In other situations, implementation may require long-term programs that change a school's entire method of operation and have a long-term effect on school culture. In these situations, new staff, equipment, responsibilities, and even ways of communicating information may be necessary. ...read more.

Middle

If a model is strictly adhered to without being open to other potential ideas, valuable information may be missed due to blatant disregard or misclassification of the information. Therefore, this limitation should be kept in mind in utilizing a group decision-making model. The Rational Model The first model is the rational model. This model is based upon an economic view of decision making. It is grounded on goals/objectives, alternatives, consequences and optimality. The model assumes that complete information regarding the decision to be made is available and one correct conception of a problem, or decision to be made can be determined. The model further assumes that the decision-makers consistently assess the advantages and disadvantages of any alternatives with goals and objectives in mind. They then evaluate the consequences of selecting or not selecting each alternative. The alternative that provides the maximum utility (i.e., the optimal choice) will be selected. The rational model is the baseline against which other models are compared (Allison, 1971; Huber 1980; March 1994). An example of a scenario using a rational model is an executive group of a company trying to determine which consulting firm to hire in order to implement a business process reengineering (BPR) effort. The executive group's goal or objective is to become a leader in its industry, and it determines that the best way to accomplish this objective is through re-engineering. Numerous management consulting firms offer BPR services. Each firm's BPR approach has advantages and disadvantages. The executive group must evaluate each firm's approach by considering how the firm will enable the company to meet its objective. Based upon this evaluation, the group selects the consulting firm that provides the best means for the company to become a leader in its industry. The most salient advantage of the rational model is that it utilizes a logical, sequential approach. Decisions are made deductively by determining the goals or objectives to be obtained, evaluating the potential alternatives based on the information at hand and choosing the optimal alternative. ...read more.

Conclusion

Groups do not eliminate the need for principals, but principals in groups are usually facilitators who ensure that each member is able and permitted to contribute to the group. Even in highly participatory environments, there are some decisions which cannot be delegated to the group process; in these situations, the principal is responsible for making decisions independent of the group. In many situations, however, it is entirely appropriate and even desirable for the group to make decisions. The benefits of group decision making include better acceptance (and implementation) of the decisions, better decisions through enhanced creativity, and an overall cohesiveness that is difficult to achieve when decisions are made independently. Peter Drucker provides us with comments appropriate for our conclusion. He stresses the point that decision-sharing among employees will not only benefit those employees and their organization but it is counterproductive to resist such expansion of responsibilities. Management's job, says Drucker, is to make human strength productive and the "shift to the worker of knowledge and the steady upgrading of competence in the working force represent a very large, almost unprecedented increase in the potential of human strength in developed countries. It is, in fact, what makes the 'developed.' Yet by and large managements in developed countries have not taken the initiative in converting this potential of strength into the actual of responsibility, of citizenship (Drucker 1980: 192)." Drucker by citizenship means democratic participation in the organization. Drucker finally notes that as the "turbulent times" intensify, organizations will be forced to take advantage of the intelligence and creativity of their employees, if those organizations wish to survive those rough times. Specifically, the teacher on all levels needs to be given genuine responsibility for the affairs of the school. He/She must be held responsible for setting the goals for his/her own work and for managing himself by objectives and selfcontrol. He/She must be held responsible for the constant improvement of the entire operation. He/She must share responsibility in thinking through and setting the school's goals and objectives, and in making the school's decisions. ...read more.

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