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Production planning and control, plant location and layout.

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INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT; PRODUCTION PLANNING and CONTROL; PLANT LOCATION and LAYOUT. 1. Production Production is the foundation on which every organization is built. Production is a secession of work elements applied to natural materials with the purpose of transforming these into desired goods & services for the satisfaction of human wants. The other word synonymously used with production is manufacturing. Manufacturing is understood to mean production of only tangible goods whereas production includes creation of both tangible goods & intangible services. In a manufacturing organization production is an intentional act of producing something in an organized manner. Similarly in a service organization production means discharge of some function which has some utility. Thus the basis of production is the transformation of inputs into goods & services. 2. The main objectives of a production process are - (1) Optimum use of resources at optimum cost. (2) Manufacture of the desired quality & quantity of goods & services. Production management refers to the application of management principles to the production function in an enterprise. In other words, production management involves application of planning, organizing, directing & controlling to the production process. The management of the transformation process of inputs into output is production management. Production management is interrelated with many other functional areas of business viz. marketing, finance, industrial relation policies, etc, thereby making it difficult to formulate some single appropriate definition of production management. 3. The following definitions try to explain main characteristics of production management: (1) In the words of Mr. E.L.Brech: "Production management is the process of effective planning & regulating the operations of that section of an enterprise which is responsible for the actual transformation of materials into finished products." This definition does not include the human factors involved in a production process. It lays stress on materialistic features only. (2) Production management deals with decision-making related to production process so that the resulting goods & services are produced in accordance with the quantitative specifications & demand schedule with minimum cost. ...read more.


Following are the steps in this approach: * Find the earliest date and the hours required that could be scheduled into each operation. * Determine the hours required at each operation and the time thereafter to complete the job if no loading delay occurs. * Schedule the bottleneck operation as early as possible. * Schedule subsequent operations as early as possible. (2) Machine loading: Using information from schedules, weekly/periodic load in hours is determined for each machine and is then recorded on the machine load chart. A machine load chart for all the machines in a production department shows the future spare capacity for all machines. (3) Load charts: Load charts shows the work assigned to various departments, machines or components of an organization. During periods of peak/heavy loads information from load charts can be used to determine: * Priorities to future orders and to decide whether to sub-contract or refuse new orders. * Provision of overtime or multishift operations. * Acquisition of extra men or equipment for additional capacity. 6. Importance of production planning The success and growth of any organization mainly depends on planning. In the present world there is tough competition, rapid development of technology and quick changes in human behavior and daily requirements. Due to these factors there is lot of uncertainty associated with every system and to counterbalance it, production planning becomes a valuable tool. Planning ensures the most economical usage of resources viz. materials, capital and labour. It tries to distribute the workload in such a manner that there is uniform use of resources during peak as well as dull periods of demand for goods and services. Planning provides basis for effective production control. Planning formulates the production schedule and fixes the targets in terms of time and effort for each operation i.e. the work standards are formulated. Thus it is evident that planning occupies an important place in management of production process. ...read more.


Plant layout tools and techniques 1. Process charts A process chart is a classification and graphic representation of production activities in a plant. These charts can be divided in two categories * Operations process charts These charts divide the whole manufacturing process into operations and inspections. It indicates the points at which materials are introduced into the process and exhibits the sequence of all operations and inspection except those involved in material handling. * Flow process charts It is a graphic representation of all production activities occurred on the floor of the plant. The study of this chart can reveal the operations that can be eliminated, rearranged or simplified to achieve economy in production. 2. Process flow diagrams It is both a supplement and substitute of flow charts. It is an aid to visualize the movement of material on an existing floor layout. 3. Machine data cards This is an effective method to provide necessary information for placement or layout of the equipment. These cards are prepared for each machine showing its capacity, space and power requirements, handling needs and the corresponding dimensions. 4. Visualization of layout This is the most common method of planning a layout by making replicas of machines, racks, benches and the equipment and then arranging these in a two or dimensional plan of the floor space. * Two-dimensional plan or templates In practice templates are used to develop layout. The area required by equipment may be cut to scale from a sheet of heavy paper, then colors may be used to show areas for production machines, benches, racks and other equipments for material handling and storage space. * Three dimensional plan or machine models To have a better understanding of the depth, height, etc. of machines, scales or miniature models are constructed in place of templates. In it one can easily detect the weakness of the layout if any. ...read more.

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