• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"To acquire resources efficiently, foragers must organise themselves to be in the right place at the right time, with the right numbers of people" (Peoples and Bailey, 87). Discuss

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Tom Burridge "To acquire resources efficiently, foragers must organise themselves to be in the right place at the right time, with the right numbers of people" (Peoples and Bailey, 87). Discuss, using examples, some of the ways in which foragers have achieved this result. Foragers, or hunter-gatherers are defined as groups of people who exploit the wild plants and animals of their territory for food1. However, these people do not try to expand their available resources by farming crops or breeding livestock2. Despite this, foragers do attempt to acquire resources more efficiently in a number of ways, including razing forests to the ground, creating pasture land for wild animals3. Also foragers in the Dobe area of Botswana, the !Kung, have a very simple, small scale, self-contained economy of a type that may have been characteristic of early man4. The Dobe region is surrounded by waterless desert and the bushman population therein is largely self-sufficient in terms of subsistence. Extreme isolation and a marginal environment have been largely responsible for the persistence of this people to the present5. Homo Sapiens has been said to have been in existence for up to 200,000 years, but farming was not practiced until 10,000 years ago6, therefore the existence of the !Kung before this proves that foraging is a viable survival technique. Compared to other peoples, foragers exercise no control over their environments, and so renders a number of foragers as nomadic peoples. Therefore, although "foragers" is a very broad term, the statement that foragers must be in the right place at the right time to acquire resources efficiently is an accurate analysis of the situations of many hunter-gatherer societies. ...read more.

Middle

Most foragers are seasonally mobile, and must be to survive in the hostile environment19. None of the earth's environments offer the same kinds and quantities of resources all year round. There may be seasonal differences in rainfall, and, outside the tropics, there are often marked differences in temperature. Ordinarily, game animals are available in some places and not in others, at different times of year, as are fruits and nuts. Therefore, in order to survive efficiently, both hunters and gatherers must be in the right place at the right time. The foragers must migrate to where sustenance is both easy to obtain and in abundant supply during a certain time period or season. A good example of this is with the Hadza people of Tanzania, who survived in an arid and dry region, with marked distinctions between the wet and dry seasonal periods. In rainy months the Hadza moved to the temporary waterholes that opened up, much like the !Kung, living on the animals and plants in the area20. At another time of year, when seasonal variations render these waterholes dry, the Hadza moved into much larger camps around the much larger and permanent water sources21. Therefore, the hunter-gatherers must be in the right place at the right time for efficient foraging. Also, to exploit plants and animals effectively and efficiently, most foragers vary the sizes of their living groups, according to the availability of food sources for the tribes according to the variations in seasonal climatic conditions22. Thus it is most efficient for small groups to co-operate in the search for food and water. ...read more.

Conclusion

at the right time with not only the right number of people, but the right type of people in gender and age. To sum up, most hunter-gatherers develop certain ways of organising their activities that help their adaptation. Firstly, there is a high division of labour based on gender and age. Secondly, there is a large degree of mobility in the existence of the tribes, especially between seasons. Thirdly, there is a congregation and dispersal of groups, again on a seasonal basis. Fourthly, there are living groups of small bands with varying size and flexible composition. Fifthly, there are strong values of reciprocal sharing and of equality of personal possessions and social status. Finally, there is a loose attachment of people to territory and flexible rights to resources27. Although these statements describe most gathering communities, I believe that the statement is not universal. I believe that "foragers" is a very diverse term, and different cultures exhibit the features to varying degrees. To prove this, a study of the Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America, who have abundant food resources - especially fish - is useful as evidence. Because of the abundance of food and the ability of the natives to smoke and preserve food for a number of months, there was no need for seasonal mobility, nor the need to live in small groups28. Therefore, although the statement is applicable for a number of hunter-gatherer groups, particular groups were more definitely associated with particular locations than were people such as the Shoshone or !Kung, and thus, the statement is not completely comprehensive. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human Resource Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human Resource Management essays

  1. Human Resources Management

    financial breakdown of Tulips Refractory Canteen was made through accounting statements such as: * Profit and Loss Accounts which role was to give me a picture of how the canteen has done so far. * Balance sheet These financial statements are designed according to the UK GAAP (Appendix 1) A.

  2. Human Resources Management

    competency framework where appropriate Seek authorization to recruit and choose Selection methods Post Advertisement both internally and externally Short listing of applicants According to application forms Selection procedures Using Interviews Selection of the appropriate Candidate Make an offer Sort references, medical etc Appoint, induct, train and evaluate The Key Players

  1. Human Resources planning.

    There will be a higher proportion of the population looking for work meaning whilst recruiting the Claim Group should have more applicants. Part of the Claims Group corporate objectives is further growth into other areas of London. The statistics on levels of unemployment levels in different areas will give The

  2. Human resources

    For AJP to do this, an understanding of the labour market in the area they operate is required. o The external labour market from which new staff will be recruited, depending upon the type of work, the skills needed and the size of the business, they may be looking at

  1. Examining the Persistent Existence of Gender Inequality in Singapore.

    At the top of $10,000 and over, males' percentage (8%) is more than double of females' (3.8%) (see Table 4). Again, although alleviated, occupational gender segregation remains; women generally prevail in occupations like associate-professionals (20.8%), clericals (22.2%), salespersons (14.8%), while in high-income positions like managers and administrators, men are majority (see Table 5).

  2. Why people come together?

    of the own purposes which not always can coincide with the purposes of a team or the organization; * To acquire the right to participate in the joint activity bringing certain, but not necessarily financial, benefit. (Boddy, 2008, view) We can possibly approve, that there are three base ideas in a basis of creation of the teams: 1.

  1. Leadership in Rapidly Changing Business Environments: Learning and Adapting in Time

    The focus should be on key emerging business revolutions: agility, authenticity, talent, and sustainability. A distinctive leadership framework-one that defines success quotients-provides direction on what it will take to lead and shape organisations in the future. The fate of future business rests, in part, on how well business leaders can

  2. HRM AT SCOTTISH POWER

    Scottish Power is headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland. It focuses on three key areas: 1) growth, 2) safety and service. There are three main business units at Scottish Power: Source: Scottish Power, 2009. Scottish Power's sister company, Scottish Power Renewable, is also part of the Iberdrola Group.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work