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University Degree: 1700-1799

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    The Industrial Revolution.

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    Consequently, our desires and necessities become increasingly cosmopolitan, so much so, that local industries are incapable of producing commodities at such high demand and are forced to stop trading and move to the more populous cities to find alternative work3. Even this early on in the revolution, the working class are forced by the emergence of industrial capitalism to relocate to the cities if they want to survive in this new world. That is not an act of democracy and freedom.

    • Word count: 1481
  2. Honor determined ones place in society for 18th century Spaniards of New Mexico, and it had two parts to it, honor-status and honor-virtue. Slavery defined boundaries and gave meaning to this honor society;

    As Ramon Gutierrez describes it, slaves were seen as irrational people, or "People lacking reason," with satanic darkness in them, versus Spaniards were rational beings who were honorable, civilized, white, and mainly because they were Christians, or "people of reason."2 As conquerors, Spanish conquistadores were awarded title of nobility, special privileges, and most important of all, social-status which was defined by the concepts honor; once more, it meant that the person is privileged, comes from white legitimate and honorable background and that he is not a slave.3 Furthermore, honor was something only man can earn, win, or enhance; and it was only first generation of conquistadors that won their honor and privileges through their achievement.

    • Word count: 1037
  3. Political and Historic Background to Declaration of Independance

    This necessity is granted thru rights that are known as inalienable rights. As true with any government, when people lack a voice in its direction and destiny, the ruling political unit is almost certainly to be viewed as totalitarian in nature. There are those that would argue that the overall good and "happiness" of the people is the primary goal and function of the government. This ethical dilemma is widely supported by the great philosopher Jeremy Bentham. Bentham believed that all authority given to the people comes from the government and that "inalienable rights" is simply nonsensical.

    • Word count: 1913
  4. The Heads of a Plan document is a key primary source in determining why Britain founded the NSW colony. What does this document tell us about the rationale to establish a European settlement in Australia?

    Some believe the reason indeed was to solve the problem of the overcrowded prisons in Britain which had been growing due to the loss of the American colony after War of Independence. Others, on the contrary, do not support the traditional argument but believe that there was more behind the decision to colonize such a baron, remote and greatly unknown land. The possible motives are either of commercial, strategic or military nature. This essay will focus in particular on the two dominant theories concerning the establishment of the colony as well as on the arguments for both of them, delivered through an analysis of the crucial document 'Heads of a Plan'.

    • Word count: 1917
  5. Eighteenth-century uprisings were in some important ways different than those of today different in themselves, but even more in the political context in which they occurred. Discuss.

    Conversely, in Virginia uprisings were more commonly extra-legal in nature. Maier stresses that mobs became increasingly violent post-independence,5 suggesting that they were less violent before and throughout the revolution. There is substance to this view; the Knowles rioters of 1747 refrained from burning a boat for fear that the fire would spread. This characteristic was also featured across the Atlantic; revisionist George Rud´┐Ż highlights the Gordon Riots (1780) where care was taken by the rebels to avoid unnecessary damage.6 However, as previously mentioned, there was no template for rebellion; some go so far as to suggest that riots were rarely without bloodshed.7 This is further backed by Arthur M.

    • Word count: 1967
  6. Free essay

    Discuss the role of silver in linking the economies of Asia, the America's and Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth century encountered what has been referred to by historians as a 'Golden Age'. Spain's success in this period saw it build the foundations for an empire that in the coming century would develop to be arguably one of the greatest powers not just in Europe but in the world, having built up its empire in 'the Mediterranean, central and north western Europe, The western Atlantic and southern pacific'2.The historians Barbara and Stanley Stein argue Spains greatness in this period was largely due to Spain's reliance on the silver and gold pines in Peru.

    • Word count: 1704
  7. Was a guilty social conscience the most important factor in the demise of British Bull-baiting?

    An article published in the Bury Post on the seventh of November, 1845 entitled 'Bull-baiting at Lavenham' takes a very subjective approach to bull-baiting, labelling it a 'brutal sport'2 and claims that the spectators 'delighted in the agonies of the noble animal'3. The article expresses the authors guilty social conscience as well as the negative opinions of local policemen and magistrates. Perhaps then, from this source it could be interpreted that the guilty social consciences only existed amongst the professional and upper classes of society.

    • Word count: 1558
  8. European Colonization in the New World

    The end result left thousands of serfs and prior renters without a job or a roof over their head. With the establishment of chartered companies and a new concept of economic life, known as mercantilism, there was great interest in products from distant lands, which was complimented by the advance in naval technology. These new advances allowed for the newly founded chartered companies to establish colonies allowing them to export products found in the New World preventing them from having to procure them from other nations. The merchant capitalists and a growing interest in quicker trade routes to the east, prompted Europeans to head in the direction of the New World.

    • Word count: 1287
  9. 1. How does Rousseau argue that obedience to the general will increases our moral liberty? Briefly discuss one reasonable objection to the claim that obeying the general will would increase our freedom.

    The concept of general will is at the centre of Rousseau's philosophy. 'Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains' (Rousseau: Cress (ed.) 1987, bk1, ch.1, p.141). He explains that when an individual decides to follow the general will, to abide by the laws established by the state, he is agreeing to act in accordance with the social contract and remain free and self-governing. In a society governed by the general will, cooperation for the good of the populace goes hand in hand with the freedom of each citizen. Rousseau envisaged society being united by the use of the general will.

    • Word count: 1214
  10. American revolution

    To the American colonists these policies represented clear evidence of tyranny and a conspiracy to 'enslave'4 the colonies. As a result of revolutionary changes in the mind colonists were transformed from loyal subjects in 1763 to revolutionaries' intent on independence in 1776. Pre-revolution America espoused England's system as they saw it as a protection of liberty as it had many checks in place to prevent despotic rule. The government was separated into three independent branches which created a balance of power. Despite being a patriarchal society that had a very defined view of descending powers, government institutions represented different classes.

    • Word count: 1773
  11. The topic that colonial governor of Connecticut Thomas Fitch (1700-1774) wrote about in 1764

    The idea was to tax the Americans on stamps, which came to be known as the Stamp Act of 1765. This is precisely the topic that colonial governor of Connecticut Thomas Fitch (1700-1774) wrote about in 1764. (Bates, A.C. The Fitch Papers, 2 vol, 1918-20) I have spoken of why this made sense for Great Britain, but it is my job through the document, Reasons why the British Colonies, in America, should not be charged with internal taxes by Thomas Fitch to inform you of how it made little sense to the Americans.

    • Word count: 1667
  12. Was revolution more far-reaching in Russia than elsewhere because of the superior organisation and efficiency of the Bolsheviks

    with which he intended to develop a strong organizational party network. His views on party organization where further developed in 1902 when he published his pamphlet 'What is to be done? In which he made clear that it was the party's task to motivate the working classes political consciousness as they were not capable of doing so themselves. It was ultimately Lenin's uncompromising stand on the way the party should be organised in 'What is to be done?' that lead to the split in the Social Democrat Party in 1903 and to the formation of the Bolshevik Party.

    • Word count: 1420
  13. How did Lenin's foreign policy affect the world?

    Even though world revolution did not occur the global impacts of this Russian leader affected all the communist parties alive and its leaders. Yergeyenic Zinoviev (Lenins close friend) once said "To study Lenin at first hand! To know Lenin is to know the road to victory of world revolution". The "indecent peace" (loss of Russian territory) of the Brest Litovsk was thought by Lenin as "signing a treaty of defeat as a way of gathering strength"- this would eventually halt a possible German advance, but more importantly dismiss Russia entirely from war since Lenin believed in times of war that "turning the present imperialistic war into civil war is the only proper proletariat slogan".

    • Word count: 1756
  14. The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and relating the concepts to David's "Brutus" and Friedrich's "Wanderer above the Sea of Fog" Published in 1762, The Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau

    He states people can be forced in relation to acts that can ultimately endanger the state of freedom. The example used would be a person experiencing drug addiction. To subsequently prevent someone from continuing this dangerous addiction would in essence be 'forcing' freedom. Rousseau is saying that a person's free acts can also lead to acts that would be considered not free, and destructive to the state of freedom. Rousseau feels that in order for people to be free, they have a responsibility to follow the general will. The general will, Rousseau states, should be decided by all people.

    • Word count: 1283
  15. The growth of America's industrialisation was considered the 'gilded age'.

    The meat industry looked forward to expanding into international markets. However, the farming industry suffered at the hands of unscrupulous railroads, which held a monopoly on long distance transport. They exploited the farmers with high freight charges. Faced with mounting debts for machinery and foreign tariffs, industrialisation had proved to be less successful in economic terms for states which relied on agriculture.2 Without the advent of the transport system, the industrialisation process would have taken much longer. Trans continental railroads heralded a new phase of expansion for various industries. Western states were now more accessible.

    • Word count: 1849
  16. Assess the Relative Importance of the Factors which persuaded the Tsar to liberate the Serfs in 1861

    For a country to have international standing and power, it needed a strong military with the latest weaponry, supplies and communication routes. Part of achieving this was through dramatic economic and agricultural reform. The emancipation of the serfs would not only help make agriculture more efficient but would also increase the pace of urbanisation, which would help the industrial growth necessary for military and economic improvement. In this way, significant military defeat in the Crimea contributed heavily in Alexander's decision to liberate the Serfs.

    • Word count: 1411
  17. Political Change and Revolution in Western Pennsylvania

    The elections of the thirties seemed that it would all come down to class issues. The lower class and upper class differentiated on political issues and parties for that matter. The parties took note of this and saw where the votes were and the ones they wanted. "The political revolution was due to an increasing political polarization along class lines during the Depression of the Thirties which seemed to indicate class and class-based economic issues would become the defining elements of American politics for some time to come2". The blue collar worker types gave overwhelming approval to the Democratic Party. So much so that they basically took over the party and created a Labor Party.

    • Word count: 1306
  18. Outline and critically assess the argument that domestic production in the period before the industrial revolution fostered equality between women and men.

    She studied the transition from feudal to modern society, focusing upon economic equality between men and women in this period. She found that the nature of economic relations in the period of domestic production were moer equal than any other time in history. Her work also includes a criticism of the inequality in the perception of the work carried out by women as being inferior. Clark's argument has been heavily criticised for its generalisation. Marry Wiesner "Generalisation... which lump all women together are dangerous"3 Britian has industrially diverse regions that were affected differently by industrialisation therefore women's experiences in this period will differ.

    • Word count: 1591
  19. Why did Imperial Russia succumb to Revolution in 1917?

    Defeats occurred even in early 1914, exemplified by Tannenberg. The Tsar's decision to take over as Commander-in-Chief in August 1915 was disastrous, implementing inadequate military strategies contrary to the experienced advice, for example, the halting of General Brusilov's offensive in summer 1916. A total of 3.8 million casualties had increased to 9.8 million by 1917, inevitably leading to disillusionment and mass army desertion. Revisionists however, would argue that Nicholas justifiably took command; he wanted to replace the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, because he had become a symbol of Duma criticism.

    • Word count: 1800
  20. Trotsky's autobiography, My Life. An Attempt at an Autobiography reveals much about the October revolution from Bolshevik eyes.

    Stalin is therefore seen as having no input or influence in the October revolution and as a result of this, Trotsky would be seen as a more appropriate leader of the Bolsheviks and socialist Russia. Despite the questionable intentions of Trotsky's autobiography it can still very much be taken into account as an accurate depiction of the revolution, "after a close and critical examination I still find Trotsky's My Life as scrupulously truthful as any work of this kind can be".1 Many factors assisted the Bolsheviks in their victory in October and an external factor that played a very important role in this was the growing discontent with the Provisional Government.

    • Word count: 1915
  21. Account for the collapse of the Tsarist regime in February 1917.

    The early Romanov rulers put back into place a system of autocratic government, which included the enserfment of the peasants. When Alexander 1 (1801-1825) died in 1825, he died heirless, thus his youngest brother Nicholas1 became Tsar. Reform was stifled under Nicholas, the course that Russia should take was the subject of considerable if suppressed debate. The arguments of the "Westernisers" and "Slavophiles" clashed, the former wishing Russia to adopt European ideas, the latter promoting what they saw as traditional Russian values.

    • Word count: 1819
  22. Why do Historians tend to disagree so much?

    History is difficult, therefore there are going to be different thoughts or answers to different topics. Also, historians know a limited amount about the past therefore what is written by academics is bound to be different and debatable. For example, it is not dates that are debatable (in most cases), no one can deny nor disagree that King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. However, if one was to ask, "what was the significance of Harold's death?" then a huge debate is open to historians. It is often the question of significance of such events that causes historians to disagree so much.

    • Word count: 1856
  23. What had the Bolsheviks achieved by 1924?

    By ceding over these lands to Germany, this had meant that Russia had lost about one-third of farmlands and being predominantly an agrarian economy, this was a heavy blow to Russia's economy which drew heavy opposition from the Leftist Social Revolutionaries. However, Lenin was not going to compromise not even to opposition by Trotsky nor Bukharin and went further to secure the treaty by threatening to resign if the Bolshevik Central Committee did not agree to it. In this respect, it shoed that Lenin was a realist who was prepared to make compromises for the survival of Russia and his

    • Word count: 1495
  24. Is the term 'Industrial Revolution' an accurate description of the economic changes taking place in the period 1760-1850?

    For the nineteenth century they used an incomes approach, looking at the numbers of people employed in different areas of the economy and multiplying these numbers with the available wage data from that period. In fact they took the data from 1850 and hence calculated backwards. They also took into account available tax assessment and rent data to estimate the amount of profit generated in non-work areas. However the data is not comprehensive by any means, there are numerous gaps which might have led to serious errors and miscalculations.

    • Word count: 1191
  25. Truth About the Noli - Almost all historians agree that the Noli Me Tangere is factual. The characters, events and places mentioned in the novel match that of the nineteenth century Philippines'.

    100) On the other hand, the personage of Ibarra cannot be assumed in real life as Jose Rizal himself; Although, the character's ideals are congruent with that of the author. Yet the most mysterious and romanticized character in the novel is Elias. He seems to possess "all the virtues of the villager: gratitude, abnegation, sacrifice, and devotion to his country." He was crafted with passion by Rizal. (Ozaeta. 1949. p. 74) Perhaps, Elias is real in that he can be compared with different people unlike Capitan Tiago and Tasio who represent particular personalities.

    • Word count: 1076

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • What was the extent of political participation in eighteenth-century England?

    "We have seen, then, that the range of ways in which the people of eighteenth-century England could take an active role in politics, whether formal or informal, direct or indirect, or local or national, was significantly varied. Despite the fact that the right to direct electoral participation was restricted to male freeholders of above 40 shillings, the door to political participation was closed to no man or woman. Virtually all social strata could participate informally, through publishing or reading political ideas in print, using social contacts to secure patronage or airing their grievances in crowds on the street; that is, voting with their feet."

  • To what extent did the aims and ideals of the French Revolution affect the following century?

    "In conclusion, I would say that the French Revolution did have an impact on the following century as it allowed the Italian Unification to take place as well as the forces for change (liberalism and nationalism) to spread. But should be taken into account that it did not bring about the German unification or most of the 1848 revolutions as it was not needed for what they were trying to achieve. But, on the whole it did have a huge impact on the following century."

  • With reference to The Social Contract, discuss the ways in which Rousseau explores the notion of duty to the state.

    "He disliked conflicting views because of his conviction that there is only one general will, and that anyone who consults their reason in a clearheaded and rational manner will arrive at the same deduction of what is in the best interests of the state. Unfortunately, one of the flaws in Rousseau's argument is that it refutes the concept of people arriving at different conclusions because we are unique and complex individuals with diverse thought patterns and beliefs. Alice Buffini U738198X Page 1 of 2"

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