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University Degree: Philosophy and Theology
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Dualism is believed mainly in religions such as Islam. Dualism states that the world is made up of two elemental categories which are incommensurable. This includes distinctions between mind and body, good and evil and universal and particular. Dualism supports the claim that each mind is an individual package that is attached to a physical being. From this theory our mental states and actions derive from uniqueness of our non physical substance. The great philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650), proposed several theories that make an important contribution to the ideas surrounding dualism. Descartes' idea of what is called Cartesian Dualism first proposed the idea of the mind and body relationship.
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Despite being unable to provide any characteristics of 'I' Descartes believes he has established that he is at least 'something', which is an improvement from the First Meditation. After coming to this conclusion, Descartes is confused as to why he has a 'more distinct grasp of things which I realise are doubtful...than I have of that which is true'. In light of such analysis Descartes attempts to show that his concluding claim, 'cogito ergo sum' is unshakably sound and thus one of certainty.
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Connectionism. his essay critiques the connectionist model, with specific references made to the neurological plausibility of the model, the differences the connectionist model has with the classical theory of mind and the strengths and weaknesses of the
It will be argued that connectionism provides a more suitable conceptual basis for theorizing the mind than classical theory. The connectionist model of the brain has derived from the findings of neuroscience. It has been established that the brain is the part of the body where all cognitive processes occur (Plunkett, 2000). Poersch (2005) describes the brain as a "complex ... parallel computer" (p. 170). The brain is composed of large numbers of densely interconnected neurons, which are separated by a small gap called the synapse. Effectively, information is passed from neuron to neuron via the synapse (See appendix 1).
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Does quantum mechanics, in particular the phenomena of superposition and entanglement, provide a case for the revision of classical logic?
Despite this, I shall conclude that - while we are not compelled to revise classical logic - the priority of logic over empirical theorising has not escaped unscathed. Superposition Described Out of all of quantum mechanics, it is perhaps the phenomena of superposition and entanglement which most clearly undermine classical logic. A superposition of states describes how a system may be not just in any given state, but also somewhere 'in between'. An often-used experiment to demonstrate various aspects of quantum theory is that of the 'two slit experiment'.
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Questioning Abortion. Marquis's argument gives us the view that we lack when looking at abortion. He states that it is prima facie wrong killing an innocent adult human. This is wrong because it deprives us of our future. However, on the other hand, Sum
In other words, when it develops sentient. (Sumner at p. 7)4 After a close examination of the two presented arguments, I will prove that viewing abortion with Marquis's argument gives us a better understanding of the fetus and it should be promoted. I will also develop two arguments to show that Sumner's argument is weak. Firstly, I will argue that giving the child up for adoption is better than abortion. Secondly, I will highlight that contraception is completely different than abortion.
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Do you agree with Jeremy Benthams dismissive view of human rights as rhetorical nonsense upon stilts?
All you can hear is a bang, a crash. Then, I assume, there is no perfect situation as we all live in imperfect circumstances. But what makes us different is our point of view and all the different approaches to one and the same topic. This essay aims to reveal some of the main ideas concerning positive and negative liberty in a discussion between their advocates. Negative liberty is the kind of liberty where people are free to the extent to which they are not prevented of making choices of their own.
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World Poverty and Human Rights Philosophy Essay. This philosophy essay is critical analysis of Section One of Jan Narvesons (2005) article, Welfare and Wealth, Poverty and Justice in Today's World. My analysis defends the egalitarianian cosmopolitanis
These three clams have been and can be again, readily refuted and dispersed. In fact is it more likely that writers like Pogge will strongly argue the principles of egalitarianism to be quite the opposite of Narverson's emphatic concerns. Narveson is quick to claim that egalitarianism, if at all feasible as a moral theory, has been unhelpfully defined. He sees egalitarianism as the moral theory that "all persons have a general right, as against all other persons, to be supplied with (if they do not already have and cannot on their own acquire)
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Aristotle believed that happiness in life was achieved through public participation in society, mainly politics. Aristotle fervently believed that practical reasoning guides moral virtues by humans. Aristotle claims that humans need to find a middle ground in any situation regarding virtuousness. The Aristotelian justification for the ownership of private property is explained as, "virtuous citizen should be an owner of property" in order to best serve the larger community. In this respect, Aristotle says man needs to find the mean between extravagance and stinginess in land ownership as in any other human practice. Aristotle speculates on how much land or possessions a man should truly have; he believes man needs to find the mean between extravagance and stinginess for all situations in life.
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Compare and contrast Foucault's understanding of the Enlightenment with that of Horkheimer and Adorno.
from modernity, the views of the Frankfurt School, more explicitly historical materialist, engage in a complicated understanding of the period which is at once both disavowal and reclamation. The difference is one of focus; whilst Foucault looks for the Enlightenment in the Enlightenment itself, Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding is one firmly grounded in the paucity of modern culture, highlighting how, to quote Gibson & Rubin (2002: 9): "Enlightenment reason had lost its liberating potential in the age of monopoly capitalism."
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I would like to focus on this second approach. Whether we are speaking about youths from troubled backgrounds with an early criminal record, or about a far-off tribe with seemingly strange customs, or about the way of life of monks in the 13th century; the belief is that unless we were there to experience what they did, or unless we belong to their 'group', we have no way of understanding them.
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Determinism: Everything Has A Cause Determinism is the view that rests on the assumption that everything has a cause. "All doctrines of determinism imply that given the past and the laws of nature at any given time, there is only one possible future. Whatever happens is therefore inevitable" (Kane 285). What does this imply? It simply implies that "we could not have chosen otherwise" (Feinberg and Shafer-Landau 410). To illustrate this position further, I will explore Paul Holbach's version of hard-determinism.
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This exclusion would only serve to further perpetuate the social concept of a patriarchy, due to the fact that is was men whom were creating the laws, allowing further restrictions to be placed upon women (1980, Rifkin, 90). This emergence of a male dominated society, as stated before, is an ancient one, that has stood the test of time in many modern day undeveloped and developing nations, though the concept of a patriarchy has had great effects on developed nations as well.
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Vladimir: It's pass the time. (Pause) Two thieves, crucified at the same time as our Saviour. One- Their conversation shows how meaningless their waiting is. They also try to do something, such as hanging: Vladimir: ......What do we do now? Estragon: Wait. Vladimir: Yes, but while waiting. Estragon: What about hanging ourselves? ....... They think of hanging themselves, but they also do not hang themselves, they have totally nothing to do when they are waiting. It seems that life is just waiting, while it is meaningless.
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Lastly, I will then conclude that Hume's argument is still a challenge to the knowledge of human life. In order to understand Hume's position, one must understand the knowledge of inductive and deductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning is used, a valid argument is when one assumes the premises are true and agrees with the conclusion. The conclusion does not have more information than the premises. The conclusion does not go beyond the premises. The conclusion, in a sense, is already embodied in the premises.
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His study of ancient Chinese classics led him to believe that during the reigns of the "sage kings", China had been well governed and harmony had prevailed throughout their realms. This was accomplished by the moral force of their personalities and their attention to social rituals not harsh punishments and excessive regulations. Confucius saw them as examples of "noble men" (junzi), who embodied the best human virtues and whose good qualities prompted others to strive for moral excellence. "Confucius believed that the presence of such people in a society is the key to social harmony and that all men have the capacity to become perfect exemplars of virtue."
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There was a green fog that appeared around the boat, and covered the view of the boat, when it originally left and when it disappeared again from Norfolk. There are many small details that are involved in this story. According to the authors, not only did the ship disappear, but weird things also happened to the crew. The men were disorientated and nauseous after the ship disappeared, some of the men were melted into the ship and "some burst into flames days after the experiment" (B.
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John Locke In A Letter Concerning Toleration, John Locke mainly discusses the duties of the magistrates. (Locke, 27) In the introduction, Locke outlines which church is the true church. He states that the 'chief Characteristical Mark of the True Church' is toleration. (Locke, 23). Furthermore, the true church does not claim itself to be the true church. Locke claims that charity, meekness, and good will come before orthodoxy of doctrine. (Locke, 23). In turn, the intolerant come off as fornicators, war-mongers, and obsessed over their own authority.
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As Germov & Poole (2007, p. 343) defines, Globalization means increasing interdependence on a world scale. In most general sense, globalization implies the continuation of the following key processes of modernization on a world scale, largely unrestricted by national boundaries and 'tyrannies of distance'. For Giddens (1990), what happens to the people in localities is increasingly influenced or even determined by a web of global relationships. He notes that Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of world-wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.
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Decades ago Wittgenstein (1953, 1968) claimed that psychology suffered from conceptual confusion. Examine whether this claim still applies to psychology.
Originally, psychology was reluctant to associate itself with the unwashed, unscientific area known as philosophy (Schultz, 1970). The abstract and rationalistic nature of the latter discipline (Van Kaam, 1958) was not thought to be congruent with a scientific approach which psychology strives to adhere to. It appears that psychologists were apparently unaware that the very nature of psychology itself was based upon philosophical assumptions (Westland, 1978). However, psychology has currently moved on from this assumption and recognises the importance of philosophy to the underpinnings of psychology (Hughes & Sharrock, 1997). In order to appropriately answer the question of conceptual confusion within psychology, and in consideration of the intimate link between psychology and the philosophy of science, it is pertinent to identify and discuss some key concepts from the latter discipline.
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the best political system to be a republic.5 The Prince was written at the end of 1513 and the Discourses on Livy were written over a longer period from approximately 1515 to 1518. Both pieces were published posthumously in 1531.6 But while The Prince focussed on attributes a statesman should employ in order to retain power; the Discourses was written for the citizen who wished to live a life of liberty free from interference from the state. Machiavelli advocated the idea of a republic where checks and balances were put into the system; he particularly liked the 'tribunes of the plebs' (lower classes)
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If the vital motion is "corroborated" by this new motion, we have the sensation of "delight", which implies "appetite" or an impulse to advance towards the pleasing object. If it is thwarted, we experience "aversion", which implies an impulse to withdraw. In either the "real effect" in the heart is only a form of motion; the feelings of delight or aversion, like the sensations of colour or sound, are but the "appearance" or "sense" (consciousness) of that motion .That which causes "delight" or "appetite" we call Good, and strive to obtain it; that which causes "aversion" we call Evil, and strive to avoid it.
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This experiment is a replica of a previous study carried out by Shepard and Cooper (1973). The study aims to look at whether the theory of mental rotation is reliable and valid.
There is further evidence to support this theory. For example, when a person is asked to imagine a dog beside a house, they often know that the size difference between the two objects are of a different size; suggesting that humans do have a 'bank' of stored mental images. Rock (1973) (as cited in Corbalis et al, 1978) states that 'an observer doesn't recognise a shape until he or she has assigned a "top" and "bottom axis", this further helps to understand the significance of mental rotation.
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COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE MEANING OF THE NATURAL LAW IN WRITINGS OF TWO OF THE FOLLOWING: HOBBES, LOCKE AND MONTESQUIEU. WHICH DO YOU FIND MORE CONVINCING AND WHY?
It is seen to be defined as the law which states that humans are in born with certain laws predetermined into them which allow them to determine the difference between right and wrong. With Aristotle there is less reference to natural law than to the distinction between natural and conventional natural law where 'natural' meant harmony with reason. He recognized the difference between things that were right or wrong in them and things that were merely right or wrong as means to other ends.
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This is a dictionary definition of law however our interpretation of the law is that it is a set of rules imposed upon us members of a state. After giving simplified definitions of democracy and law one may move on to answering the question more clearly. Firstly it must be clearly stated that Government is responsible for the direct implementation of the law-making process. The Parliament is the authority which holds the hands of the legislature that sets the rules and provisions invoked by the people.
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This is a departure from the previous belief that there was a higher order and morality than that achieved by the state. This in itself is a moral judgement; the notion of the welfare of the human being now had as having intrinsic value had been revived. The earthly welfare of the human being was now significant rather than the spiritual welfare in preparation for the passage into the City of God. It is how Machiavelli believed this immediate welfare should be achieved that is morally dubious but it is hard to argue that the system has no moral dimension.
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