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University Degree: Philosophy and Theology
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Life of Aristotle Aristotle was the last of the famous Greek Triumvirate. The first two were Socrates and Plato. Aristotle was born in 384 B. C. in Macedonian town of Stagira. His interest in the natural sciences started when he was still at a very young age which can be attributed to the influence of his family. His father was a physician who was a member of the Asklepiad family, which claimed to be descendants of Asklepios, the Greek god-physician. ("Philosophy of Aristotle: Philosophy is a Way of Life" 1) It is said that his parents trained him and his siblings in medicine.
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Despite the conflict between both, is there anything they may have in common? The common factor between rationalism and empiricism is skepticism. Skepticism addresses the question of justifying our knowledge. It asks the question on how do we know that we know? Michael Huemer offers four arguments for skepticism. However, I shall only focus on the infinite regress argument. This paper aims to provide an answer to the following question, how will an empiricist and a rationalist respond to Huemer's infinite regress argument and claim that he does have at least some knowledge?
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Determinism: Everything Has A Cause Determinism is the view that rests on the assumption that everything has a cause. "All doctrines of determinism imply that given the past and the laws of nature at any given time, there is only one possible future. Whatever happens is therefore inevitable" (Kane 285). What does this imply? It simply implies that "we could not have chosen otherwise" (Feinberg and Shafer-Landau 410). To illustrate this position further, I will explore Paul Holbach's version of hard-determinism.
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Here, it seems that Nietzsche is trying to reject any empirical sense of gaining knowledge. For example, I know that I am sitting on a wooden chair because I can see the chair, feel the texture of the wood, touch it, and even smell the aroma of it. But Nietzsche argues that we only perceive the surface of things, and our "senses nowhere lead to the truth" (Nietzsche 452). This is what Nietzsche meant by using the analogy of our senses being like a "blinding fog over the eyes" and thus deceiving us on our knowledge about things.
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In 1990 his article Making Ethical Decisions, that appeared in his book American Business Values, Cavanagh speaks about utilitarianism and how it is the action that produces the greatest net good for all those who are affected by the action.
For me this was an article that lacked information and examples of utilitarianism, individual rights, and justice. I believe he used pathos appeals for his readers, however, he lacked at presenting information and helping the reader understand the statement. Utilitarianism originated from an ethical principle under Jeremy Bentham, who theorized an action is right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Cavanaugh (2004) informs readers that utilitarianism is rarely possible to measure the costs and benefits. I found that utilitarianism is measured by hedons (which is positive), and dolors (which is negative).
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This exclusion would only serve to further perpetuate the social concept of a patriarchy, due to the fact that is was men whom were creating the laws, allowing further restrictions to be placed upon women (1980, Rifkin, 90). This emergence of a male dominated society, as stated before, is an ancient one, that has stood the test of time in many modern day undeveloped and developing nations, though the concept of a patriarchy has had great effects on developed nations as well.
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Discuss the reasons why Karl Popper is regarded as one of the Greatest Philosophers of Science of the 20th Century.
The main deviation from Positivism is Popper's belief that the laws attributed to the subject of research cannot be expected to remain static (Haralambos et al, 2004). Popper outlined the need for a scientist to approach investigations starting with a problem rather than with observations (Thornton et al, 2009), allowing for the changes in laws attributed. A new scientific theory must begin when observed phenomenon clashes with existing theory. The strongest element of Popper's work for achieving truth in research was in requiring a set of criteria to be met, with little room for ambiguity, for a hypothesis to be considered scientific.
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Aristotle. More than two thousand years ago, Aristotles investigation into these questions established unique standards of philosophic inquiry, observation and judgment. The following is centered around his life, the works behind his philosophical idea
His father, Nicomachus, was a doctor, friend and physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. His mother, Phaestis, was rich in her own right. In 367 Aristotle moved to Athens, where he became a member of the intellectual circle, which centered on Plato. No doubt he had learned some philosophy as a boy in Stagira; perhaps he had read some of Plato's philosophical dialogues. It is not for certain, but maybe he moved to Athens precisely in order to study philosophy with Plato. Plato was a celebrated figure; perhaps a controversial figure. His fame had attracted intellectuals from abroad and the Platonic circle, "Plato's Academy", included some of the most eminent philosophers and scientists of the age.
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He, no longer, produces according to his own desires but rather it becomes a necessity. He analyzes that the product is nothing more than being the summation of the total actions in production process; therefore the relationship of the proletariat with the product can be expanded between the worker and the process of production. There is an immense connection between the estrangement of the production activity and the product itself, once the former definition of product being considered as the summation of the processes to produce.
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Vladimir: It's pass the time. (Pause) Two thieves, crucified at the same time as our Saviour. One- Their conversation shows how meaningless their waiting is. They also try to do something, such as hanging: Vladimir: ......What do we do now? Estragon: Wait. Vladimir: Yes, but while waiting. Estragon: What about hanging ourselves? ....... They think of hanging themselves, but they also do not hang themselves, they have totally nothing to do when they are waiting. It seems that life is just waiting, while it is meaningless.
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It is an unreliable test of morality because it makes morality depend on a person's desire, which cannot be controlled. The golden rule also fails to give us actual guidance on self-regarding actions. Because the above tests sometimes give the wrong answer to moral questions, neither can be the ultimate test of morality (Shafer-Landau 146). Kant's goal was to identify the ultimate principle of morality which would explain the attraction of the two previously mentioned tests and at the same time correct their limitations.
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Hence, the use of analogy is a skill used in philosophical exposition (Hansen 15). In chapter two, "the mass Noun Hypothesis and Abstraction in Chinese Language and Thought," he presents an alternative theory as to how the Chinese language might have affected the theoretical system of classical philosophers. In chapter three, "Background Theories of Language in Ancient China", he writes about major Chinese philosophers: Lao-tzu, Confucius, Mo Tzu, and Chuang Tzu. It was based on four assumptions about language: "assumptions about the function of language; assumptions about the way in which language relates to the world; assumptions about the origin and status of language; and miscellaneous contrasts in assumptions about the relation between language and mental or abstract objects (Hansen 57)."
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Lastly, I will then conclude that Hume's argument is still a challenge to the knowledge of human life. In order to understand Hume's position, one must understand the knowledge of inductive and deductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning is used, a valid argument is when one assumes the premises are true and agrees with the conclusion. The conclusion does not have more information than the premises. The conclusion does not go beyond the premises. The conclusion, in a sense, is already embodied in the premises.
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Turing proposes an imitation game where it involves a man, a woman, and an interrogator who may be of either sex in separated rooms from the man and the woman (Turing). The interrogator has to determine which of the two are the man and the woman by communicating through teletype. It is then asked if the interrogator would decide incorrectly as often as it would have if played with a machine rather than a human being (Turing). The machines which are concerned in this game are logical computing machines that can do anything mechanical.
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In On the Edge of Empire, Adele Perry makes it obvious that the white elites in British Colombia and England saw the interracial relationships between white men and Aboriginal women to be a problem that needed to be fixed. They decide the necessary course of action was to bring boat loads of white women to British Colombia to distract the men from Aboriginal women and straighten out this wayward settler society.4 These boat loads of women would be taken from England where they felt there was a "surplus" of unmarried women;5 this is an example of how women were objectified.
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Ought I to donate so much money to famine relief that I do not have enough left to buy birthday presents for my children? Explain what your answer implies for either Singers or ONeills approach to famine relief.
He takes the utilitarianism way of looking at poverty i.e. people morally should always try to do the action which will bring about the best outcome possible. In his writing in "Famine, Affluence and Morality" (1972) he states; "I begin with the assumption that death from lack of food, shelter and medical care are bad". Singer believes that if we are able to help people i.e. people who are feeling the effects of famine, then we should help them as long as we do not have to sacrifice something of "comparable moral importance, we ought, morally to do it" (Singer, 1972).
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His study of ancient Chinese classics led him to believe that during the reigns of the "sage kings", China had been well governed and harmony had prevailed throughout their realms. This was accomplished by the moral force of their personalities and their attention to social rituals not harsh punishments and excessive regulations. Confucius saw them as examples of "noble men" (junzi), who embodied the best human virtues and whose good qualities prompted others to strive for moral excellence. "Confucius believed that the presence of such people in a society is the key to social harmony and that all men have the capacity to become perfect exemplars of virtue."
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Many people would say that the human mind acts just as the executive unit of Turing's machine. There are an infinite number of memories, actions, steps, and processes stored in the mind and for every situation, there could only be one of a certain number of outcomes. If one were to look at "the equation of mindware with software...a flurry of work on physical symbol systems," they would find "a set of interpretable and combinable items (symbols) and a set of processes that can operate on the items (copying, conjoining, creating, and destroying them according to instructions)."
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One example of libertarianism is, at this moment, one has the choice to either resume reading this paper or to do something else. This claim that any human being can choose one option or another can be applied to the entire world, in that it is not casually determined one way or the other. The concept of libertarianism also refers to the idea that an agent's free will is a necessary condition of moral responsibility. While it is granted that states of mind and laws may have an influence upon human decisions, nevertheless those decisions are, in theory, not completely predictable by analyzing those states and laws.
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For the purpose of this essay morality is also understood to; 1. Be universalisable and inalienable, consistent and complete 2. Elucidate a conception of a life of excellence for both society and individuals, balancing our own interests with those of others Thus, one can determine if everyone acting from self-interest could provide the basis for morality through the examination of Universal Ethical Egoism, the position that an action is right only if consequences favour the agent performing the action. I will ultimately conclude that, to create a basis for morality, we must recognise the needs of others and weigh our own interests accordingly; thus a social contract.
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There was a green fog that appeared around the boat, and covered the view of the boat, when it originally left and when it disappeared again from Norfolk. There are many small details that are involved in this story. According to the authors, not only did the ship disappear, but weird things also happened to the crew. The men were disorientated and nauseous after the ship disappeared, some of the men were melted into the ship and "some burst into flames days after the experiment" (B.
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John Locke In A Letter Concerning Toleration, John Locke mainly discusses the duties of the magistrates. (Locke, 27) In the introduction, Locke outlines which church is the true church. He states that the 'chief Characteristical Mark of the True Church' is toleration. (Locke, 23). Furthermore, the true church does not claim itself to be the true church. Locke claims that charity, meekness, and good will come before orthodoxy of doctrine. (Locke, 23). In turn, the intolerant come off as fornicators, war-mongers, and obsessed over their own authority.
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The first element of combat power used effectively in the Battle of Saipan was firepower. Firepower is defined as the destructive force essential to overcoming the enemy's ability and will to fight.6 The Japanese first experienced the American destructive force on 11 June 1944 when the heavy bombers of the Seventh and Thirteenth Air Forces, along with naval ships, began bombarding the western beaches of the island.7 Although the four day air and naval bombardment failed to completely clear the beach, it drove the majority of the Japanese troops from the beaches, making the amphibious assault for General Ralph Smith's
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(1997: 123). By claiming so, he gives the perceptual process the power to justify basic beliefs so it can be said that basic belief is not really the answer to the regress argument because it is possible to ask then how we know that this process is justified. For example, we have to believe that we are not deceived or that our eyesight is good enough so that we could trust what we see. This makes the regress argument still up-to-date.
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He even says it is a way to self-destruction, because it is an opposition to fulfilling our human needs. He is speaking about ethical egoism of course. He denies that maximizing self-interest is morally right. The egoism without moral judgment is presented by Henry Sidgwick (1901). He argues that it is rational to be egoistic, because if any moral rule is to be worthy of accepting, it should be accordant to our mind. What is altruism then? It is commonly recognized as an opposition to egoism. It involves behaving in the way that brings others some advantages while the behaving person gets none or even suffers from some negative effects of such an act.
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