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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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are to be believed then the gains to be had from proper vaccination coverage (or 'herd immunity') throughout society are not only beneficial to individuals but are essential to public health and wellbeing. The counter arguments from the mainstream press include claims that the medicines used are insufficiently tested, are dangerous to human health and are only being pushed on the public to ensure continued profits for powerful, multinational drug companies. Vaccination advances have often been treated with scepticism and fear by the mainstream press. The coverage that was received by the swine flu vaccine in 2009 presented worldwide controversy, and many of the tabloid press organisations were eager to stress that the vaccine (H1N1)
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According to research, women journalists battle both for jobs and to be taken seriously. How (if at all) has this picture changed over the last few years and if it has, in what ways?
Before the changes listed above, reporting on the news was seen as being a job directed at males. This may be because the desired traits of a journalist are more aligned to those possessed by the male species. Saltzman describes "...traits of journalism essential for success - being aggressive, self-reliant, curious, tough, ambitious, cynical, cocky, unsympathetic..."1 These attribute are stereotypically uncharacteristic of the feminine form, who tend to be more "compassionate, caring, loving, maternal, sympathetic"2 which supposedly render them unable to produce effective stories on the 'hard-beat reports'.
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Indeed, new media culture's constituents partly concern with the attitude, the psychology of people towards cyberspace; in other word, they mainly emerge due to the way users interact with new media everyday via any forms and approaches. For example, Internet environment provides virtual market such as eBay and people fully take advantage of this site which accustoms them with new way of shopping, cybershopping, which in turn makes up new media culture. Before deeply plunging into discussion of how new media blurs or creates boundaries between imaginative fiction and reality, it would be interesting to envision what is the so-called Virtual Reality (VR).
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These limitations mean that they do not have the luxury to develop their characters and must use stereotypes so that they can concentrate on getting the message across. Although advertisers and others who manufacture these mass cultural images argue that the popular culture only reflects the society, the reverse is also true and the media images at a subconscious level influence the society's behaviour. This affect of the popular culture on the way the society perceives itself has many people worried, among them the feminists who believe that such limiting images of women in popular culture is having a negative impact on the emancipation of women.
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the market, latest products and innovations), and also the analysis whether a country's culture cause this trend or it is the one affected by this trend? 2. Mobile Phone Industry Another aspect in marketing of telecommunication services is about the service quality. Technically, the congestion-based pricing that most telecommunication carriers use in their service offering is based on the idea that their networks are occupies evenly during the day, which means the utilization is above the specific target. However, once the traffic surges, mobile carriers face difficulty providing the same access for customers, which cause the inconvenience for customers such as drop call, network congestion, and blank spot, to name a few.
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(Barthes 1967, 9) However a Swiss linguist called to Ferdinand de Sassure (1857-1913) has worked on signs and has ultimately concluded that signs can be divided into two elements which are; * The signifier is defined as a piece of material that is represented to people. It's easy to explain an image from this element. * The signified is simply the evoked idea of the material that is indicated by the signifier. This element enables individuals to think beyond what's represented. For example some people may explain what they see differently from others because it varies between people and circumstances.
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Finally, I will analyze the metamorphosis of celebrity, that is the shift from ascribed celebrity been the focus of attention to achieved celebrity taking over in the West. I will construct my argument along the line as some notable academic theorist such as Bob Franklin, Joshua Gamson, Daniel Boorstin and Ernest Cashmore. CELEBRITY DEFINED Before I go further, it is important to have an understanding of the term celebrity; the oxford dictionary defines celebrity as the state of being famous, this gives us a faint idea of the term.
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You definitely need lots of rest ". I hurried out of the bedroom with the tray and down the front hall, pausing just long enough to check my reflection and covered up quickly with my salwar. Dad heard the sound of my foot steps and turned, his scowl changing immediately to a fake smile. Dad hurriedly came towards me and pulled me closer, "Pooja, for god's sakes why are you here front of my friends not dressed appropriately, you could have just sent Arjun".
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research paper Anti-Asian racism seems like to be still alive in today's America with its unconscious stereotypes and prejudice that are socially constructed upon Asian Americans, and its effects have been always harmed many Asian America in various ways,
b. Why it is a 'problem' for Asian American communities? - The physical act of violence maybe taken on an individual, but the actual hatred is on the whole community. - Asian Americans have become the fastest-growing targets for hate crimes and violence national wide for the last 20 years. This increase in anti-Asian violence challenges Asian American communities and its people that, Asian Americans can loss their faith living in America. The problem now seems like a regular occurrence and an ongoing pattern. - Anti-Asian violence includes beatings, rapes, verbal and mental assault, and deaths of Asian Americans, and how can Asian American communities possibly still pretend to be in "healthy" condition both socially and politically?
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Gradually, programming with real people and real emotions presented in the form of 'factually-based light entertainment' (Brunson et al., 2001: Hill, 2002) began to take over primetime slots. In its fundamental format Reality TV is a wide genre, encompassing many sub-genres. Its basic principle is that it involves ordinary people as themselves and not fictional characters that have been tailored to audience needs. With shows having no need for actors, scriptwriters or even sometimes TV studios there is a low cost to production and arguably a low quality to shows.
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Further to this discussion, the essay will examine the concepts of truth and objectivity. After this initial analysis, the essay will go on to explain how embedded journalists routinely distort their news coverage under the constraints of official censorship and self-imposed censorship. Finally, this essay will expose the dangers of employing embedded journalists during times of conflict, and ultimately reveal the role that embedded journalists played in the deterioration of the fourth estate ideals of truth and objectivity during the Iraq war. EMBEDDED JOURNALISTS During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the United States military took an unprecedented step in military-media relations by adopting a strategy of embedding journalists in among coalition forces (Pfau et al 2004).
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By comparing and contrasting issues from 1855 and 1899, this essay will seek to explain the changes and consistencies in terms of the historically significant events that surrounded the newspaper between 1855 and the turn of the century. Methodology The analysis of newspapers using diverse methods of investigations is a long established practice in the study of humanities (McQuail 1977). It is widely used in mass media research because it is an efficient and effective technique of analysing the content of media messages (Wimmer and Dominick 1983).
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This however, according to some, was undermined when, after September 11th it began broadcasting videos which saw Osama bin Laden attempting to justify his terrorist attacks upon the United States. Ever since, Donald Rumsfeld, the US Defence Secretary and many others have accused Al-Jazeera of "consistently lying" and "working in consort with terrorists". However can this really be seen as "consistently lying" or as objectivity? Showing both sides of the story and allowing America to see Osama Bin Ladens justifications, maybe leading to his whereabouts and showing the Iraqi people the true reason for the war, to hate their country's propagandists.
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They provided Greer with a Philosophy to emphasize the attitudes and lifestyle she had already acquired in Melbourne. Instead of being like the group she had joined in Melbourne known as 'the Drift' who mainly referred to art, truth and beauty as their main ideology, the push 'talked about the truth and only truth, insisting that most of what we were exposed to during the day was ideology, which was a synonym for - or bullshit, as they called it.' (Wallace:1997:p87). Greer believed this group helped her realise what she wanted to achieve in life, she believed she was already an anarchist although she didn't know why.
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Claude McKay's "If We Must Die," considered by many to be the "inaugural address of the Harlem Renaissance," speaks to the traditional ideal of black masculinity
Women's suffrage was in its infancy and the literary world's regard for Black or ethnic literature was almost non-existent. The racial climate in America was gauged by a lynch-mob mentality and morally corrupt legislation. Black literature was a distant afterthought in literary circles, thus making the relevance of the Harlem Renaissance that much more important and its participants future literary giants. "If We Must Die" is, at face value, a product of its time, but more important its universality and protest speech will help to sustain its importance in the future of literary criticism. II. History of the Criticism of the Work There have been a number of different critical approaches to this particular poem.
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Magazines create demographically identifiable communities and sell those communities to advertisers. It is difficult to measure a magazine's performance. Circulation, meaning how many copies in fact reach people, is one measure, but it is far from being precise (Sutherland, 2). Readership is also objectionable as it is unable to measure how many readers a copy lying around in a hair salon or hospital waiting room actually finds (2). Controlled-circulation magazines depend entirely on advertisements to keep them in business. In the last decade, regional (especially city, such as Toronto Life) and specialty magazines (eg, those dealing exclusively with fashion, travel, food)
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"Critical political economy is mainly concerned with the relationship between capitalist enterprise and social intervention... Importantly, it goes beyond technical issues of efficiency to engage with basic moral questions of justice, equity and public good."1 This approach attempts to provide grounds to argue whether the media is simply a business, based around consumers, or if the media is a service which emphasizes informing, educating and entertaining society. The mass media of today is becoming greatly manopolised in many countries across the globe.
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Gradience is important when discussing whether certain nouns are more noun-like than others because there needs to be a sliding scale of change from the words that are the most noun-like to the words that are the least noun-like. Gradience is reliant upon a sound definition of the word class, in this case, nouns. The traditional definition of a noun is that it is a "naming word" or a word that denotes persons, places or things. James Hurford (1994:139-143) suggests that the most basic nouns represent physical objects.
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His reporting suggests and underlines ideological values that impede objectivity either unwilling or unwittingly. His general claims are that, as a reporter he reports everything he sees happening in a war. In the case of the Iraq war, he is trying to show the reality behind the wars "This is just a scene from hell here. All the vehicles on fire. There are bodies burning around me, there are bodies lying around, there are bits of bodies on the ground" (Simpson: 2003: www.bbc.co.uk). But one can easily argue that the very fact that he chooses to be a war correspondent means that he will be subjective.
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A major difference between critical political economy and mainstream economics is that critical political economy is holistic, or in other words, it is concerned with wholes, rather than analysis or separation into parts. Critical political economy takes an encompassing view of the media, blurring the boundaries between social, cultural and political aspects of the media that other theories pride themselves on keeping strictly separate. To apply the holistic component of the critical political economy approach to news and current affairs, it could be asked for example, why some people choose different network broadcasters for news information, why some people choose
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If a journalist fails to attain an objective point of view, the journalist might be viewed as incompetent. According to Seib (1994:15), journalists are not doing their jobs correctly if their coverage is constricted by premeditated bias or even inadvertent lack of evenhandedness. We immediately assume that information given to us by the media is accurate and impartial, but the information given could be systematically preferred over another and it is important for citizens to be aware of this. To maintain objectivity journalists must avoid bias perspectives, they must not allow their cultural background and experiences to affect they way they view news or potential stories.
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McRobbie (1996) argues that magazines seek to "further consolidate and fix an otherwise more unstable sense of both self and gender" (in Curran 1996: 193), and so magazines seem to be central to society as they create a culture, a culture of femininity where a common experience of girlhood is shared. Bignell argues that the function of magazines is "to provide readers with a sense of community, comfort, and pride in this mythic feminine identity" (Bignell 1997: 61). As the magazine promotes a "feminine culture" and "(defines)
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To what extent do the texts Heart of Darkness, Black Mischief and A Passage to India represent examples of colonial discourse?
Forster and Black Mischief by Evelyn Waugh. The first question one can ask when contemplating this essay is whether the natives depicted in the books are seen to benefit from the process of colonisation. Is the opinion of Marlow's aunt, (that the colonisers are "weaning those ignorant millions from their horrid ways"3) backed up by the representation of the places depicted in the books? If so this would indicate to a degree whether the texts could be construed as examples of colonial discourse.
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Due to this they may find that the papers are talking down to them instead of to them. This problem, known as the discursive gap, is especially significant for the tabloid press, as their target audience is mainly made up of the working class. In order to deal with this, these papers adapt a style of writing and layout which can be perceived as closer to conversation. One rarely finds long pieces of unbroken text, rather they tend to change the typeface and the fonts so as to signify someone talking.
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The writing of history is never impartial; the authors would inevitably assert their interpretations of events in their writings.
The 'Mysterious' Author It is not clear whether Marrisa Champion is the author or compiler of the textbook. I deduced that she is the author based on the acknowledgements.2 There is no biography of her in the textbook; hence I did searches on the National University of Singapore Library online catalogue and on the Internet. However, I was not able to locate any other information about her. It seems that she has not published any other titles or journal articles before. In this light, I do have some reservations about her academic credentials. In order to clarify my doubts, I contacted the managing editor of the publisher, Ms Zuraidah Jaffar through the telephone.
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