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University Degree: Paper-based media studies

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  1. 19th Century Slave Narratives: When Literacy doesn't necessarily equal Freedom.

    Even now, it is considered a model for all following slave narratives. Individual in a very different way, Harriet Jacob's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl was one of the first slave narratives written by a woman, and raised awareness not only of the atrocities of slavery in general, but of the specific deeds committed against female slaves. Within these two narratives I will examine what literacy has accomplished with regard to their own stories, especially with regard to the differences between the male and female experiences.

    • Word count: 3278
  2. To what extent has the support of the Sun newspaper been crutial to success in British general elections since 1992?

    The Sun clearly occupied a unique position in the daily press. It was still read by 22% of the adult population with a daily circulation of 3,571,000 and a readership of 9,857,00 in April 1992.1 This was, however, down on 1987 when the circulation was close to four million and the readership was over 11 million. Nevertheless, the Sun was still the most popular paper around and it helped make up the 70 percent of total newspaper circulation that supported the Tories at this general election.

    • Word count: 3831
  3. Who controls the content of British newspapers? Do controls over the press work reasonably well, or is there a need for change? Discuss with examples.

    The newspapers have learnt over time that they don't have much to gain from lowering prices, and initiating a price war, the competition in its place is that of 'product differention'. Instead of making the newspapers cheaper, the editors make them unique and exclusively valued. The journalists and editors gain a competitive advantage by utilizing the industry myth of a 'scoop'. If a news team manages to produce a product that's so unique and no one else has got there first they will achieve an overwhelming advantage.

    • Word count: 1667
  4. Discourse analysis of an Australian public figure.

    The compendium of discourses which make up the media (print journalism, magazines, televisions, film, radio, Internet) involves a huge array of institutional values and embodied practices. In this essay, I will examine the linguistic performance of several celebrity articles which have been published during late 2001 and 2002 in some Australian woman's magazines, in terms of important aspects of the creation and interpretation of these texts. The three texts that I have chosen to analyse are all media representation of an Australian celebrity, Nicole Kidman, from Who Weekly and Woman's Day, which appeared in the aftermath of legal divorce between Nicole Kidman and Tom Cruise, an American film star.

    • Word count: 2339
  5. Media Analysis - Print Journalism and the News Broadcast - Technology Media and Society.

    The newspaper has been informing the public since the enlightenment era, none so much as in the last century where it has come into its element. The Independent newspaper on the 17th of March 1998 displayed a number of headline stories. The front page of any newspaper can capture an audience and lure it in to the realms of the inner pages. It is for this reason that we will only examine the front page of this Broadsheet. In any visual format it is important to have some sort of layout.

    • Word count: 1521
  6. Communications Bill (Nov 2002) and its Effects on the Press.

    The feeling is that, with Ofcom being a government regulatory body and therefore working closely with them, the government now has the freedom to control everything that goes out in newspapers to their favour, therefore making it impossible for any paper with an anti-Labour stance, or any paper that chooses to disagree with them in the future, to do so publicly through their own newspapers. The government, however, more notably Culture secretary Tessa Jowell who helped devise the bill, state that the regulatory body is only there in the case of newspapers to advise the Secretary of State in the event of any mergers, and would not have any control over the editorial content of what the newspapers publish.

    • Word count: 800
  7. The content analysis, which I preformed, is based on twenty magazine articles.

    Gender plays a vital role in the representation of the familiar, the desirable and the "real" in popular media culture. As an integral part of this culture, the world of advertising plugs into gender representations in particular and often very interesting ways in order to locate its products within the world as perceived by its intended viewers. Several famous Hollywood actresses and performers have been seen on many magazine covers displaying their nipples and cleavages.

    • Word count: 590
  8. Many teenagers and pre-teens rely on magazines and other media to figure out how to look, dress, behave and feel about themselves.

    I would not want my 13 year old daughter dressing provocatively and applying makeup while waiting to wash out her bleach blonde hair dye. What I found odd was the type of clothing that was trying to be sold to the young women. It was either sexy or just plain odd. Either way, a girl would get made fun of for wearing these types of clothes to school. Other girls would give them jealous looks if they wore sexy clothes to school and they would make jokes about them, possibly giving the girl a reputation around school that probably wouldn't be a good one.

    • Word count: 1761
  9. A critical review of newspaper articles published in October 2003, 'after' the war in Iraq.

    The article details the accuracy of this report in foreseeing the threats of occupying Iraq, and criticises the Pentagon, and inherently the US, for being ill-prepared; 'the Pentagon could have been better prepared for the post-war 000116828 situation'. (Teather, 2003) There is no blame assigned to Britain for this mistake within the article. The final article I have chosen was published in 'the Mirror' on the 11th October, and is titled 'Was it all worth it?' This article reports on a memorial service held for 'Britain's fallen heroes in Iraq'.

    • Word count: 1640
  10. What factors enabled the Daily Mail to be so immediately successful when it was launched in 1896?

    Better working conditions had also been set, so people had more time to read papers. . The removal of stamp duties in 1855 resulted in a cheaper stamp press meaning more people could afford to buy a paper. This cost was further reduced in 1861 when the excise duty on paper was abolished. Technological factors were a big influence on the growth of the popular press as a whole. Within a relatively short period of time (1860-1900) a huge array of new technology was introduced, including the telephone, electric telegraph, typewriter, high-speed rotary press and half tone block for the reproduction of photographs.

    • Word count: 1633
  11. 2. Analyse the various responses tounemployment in Wales between the two world wars.

    What then were the major factors that led to this mass unemployment in the inter-war period? The First World War obviously had a huge impact on the economy of not just Wales but in Britain as a whole. "The war marked the end of an era. It ushered in a period during which Britain was to find it increasingly more difficult to earn her living and for some parts of the country, such as the south Wales coalfield, this implied absolute economic decline...the county [Glamorgan] was faced with the harsh reality of substantial economic depression and large scale unemployment"2.

    • Word count: 2160
  12. Press freedom gives journalists the right to present stories to the public that are in the public interest. What is the public interest and why is it so important?

    The concept of press freedom today rests on two distinct arguments. The political justification for the freedom of the press is based on the ideal of an institution whose function is to get at the truth of matters of importance and interest to the general populous. The best way to do this is to allow for the publication of information and ideas and to subject them to debate, contradiction and denunciation, hence the public interest factor. Alternatively, as a principle based upon democratic theory, the press provides a forum for political debate and helps to mould public opinion.

    • Word count: 3641
  13. Describe what is meant by the term 'moral panic', using your own words as far as possible - Cite at least one example of a 'moral panic'.

    The notion of a moral panic attempts to understand such claims. Stanley Cohen used the notion of moral panic whilst examining the disturbances between the mods and the rockers' in Clacton in 1964. In his view the media reaction was excessive, generating widespread public concern and causing the authorities to react stronger in later incidents and ultimately fuelling the original problem. The initial clashes between mods and rockers' in 1964 were relatively small. The press arrived the following day and proceeded to interview participants and members of the public.

    • Word count: 750
  14. Are The Media Racist? Discuss using appropriate examples with particular reference to Pilger's concept of 'unpeople'.

    Britain is a multi-cultural society; after World War 2 until the passing of the 1961 Commonwealth Immigrants Act, anyone from the commonwealth had the right to settle in the UK. Even though the passing of the act slowed the level of immigration, a large number of both commonwealth and non-commonwealth people came to Britain in order to find work and set up home legally. However, despite having lived in Great Britain for over half a century, the media's representation of ethnic minority groups are often negatively stereotyped or completely absent from texts2.

    • Word count: 2337
  15. Philosophy of Journalism

    In her account of the decline of committed journalism, Virginia Berridge (1978) argues this was due to the commercialisation of the popular press and the launch of sensationalist papers which entertained rather than informed, and targeted popular sentiment over political commitment. MORE CAMPBELL DOUGLAS 2 Berridge demonstrates this process happened from within, when the News of the World and Lloyds Weekly tapped into the radical press in the 1840s with commercial intent. Indeed, the News of the World declared in its first issue: 'It is only by a very extensive circulation that the proprietors can be compensated for the outlay of a large capital in this novel and original undertaking.'

    • Word count: 2662
  16. How Does the Media Source News and How is it Selected? To What Extent is News Constructed?

    To ensure they always have a wide range of new stories to write about, new organisations set up contacts (like foreign correspondents) and may cover predictable events or use data provided by other organisations seeking publicity. All the information used is mainly provided by news agencies (like Reuters), press releases, emergency services, diary stories, journalists' contacts and other media. Information used in politics is often collected from the "lobby system", where journalists are given unattributable information from the government, usually from people like the Prime Minister's Chief Press Secretary and other individuals in charge of giving press releases on behalf of the MP's.

    • Word count: 1364
  17. Comics - A European or American Phenomenon?

    It is of central interest to discover mutual influences and probable existant peculiarities of the American or European comic culture. We will focus on initial trends, and developments against the background of the Second World War and the postwar years, in order to show why the United States dominate the European comic market and how nevertheless typical European comics remained important. The European comic was influenced until the beginning of the twentieth century by the "form ... Rodolphe T�pffer gave his fanciful picture stories about Monsieur Cryptogame or Monsieur Jacob"1 (Fuchs, 1972, p.

    • Word count: 2184
  18. During the recent years in the history of modern art, there is one thing that one cannot miss to notice - we see that artists and the media are bound together.

    I will start with Andy Warhol. He understood the importance of the mass-media attention would have in his life and took advantage of that very early in his career. He started by creating advertisements that would be published on newspapers and recreated comic images that were published in magazines he was reading when he was a child. His images were instantly recognisable and would make him famous in his work field. But it was not until he started printing his " Death and Disaster" series on canvas that the art world started to notice him.

    • Word count: 1891
  19. Critical analysis: Virginia Woolf, 'A Room of One's Own.'

    "Like most uneducated women...I like reading books in the bulk." This quote is particularly ironic, in that one must be educated in order to be able to read accurately. Here, Woolf is using the male belief that women are uneducated with the intention of rebelling against the society in which she lives, as she challenges the 'male' form of literature. Woolf does this by outwardly criticizing male-dominated genres, for example, she claims that biographies are "too much about great men," and that "history is too much about wars."

    • Word count: 1227
  20. Select an aspect of the development of Magazines that you consider significant and evaluate your choice with appropriate examples.

    The first newspaper to print photographic news pictures, was The Daily Mirror, in London, and The Daily Graphic, in New York, after a means of photomechanical relief printing, was developed in the 1890s. The 1920s saw a large increase in the number of newspapers and magazines using photographs, Fig 2 shows the type of image used in the Illustrated London News, by Herbert Ingram. The magazine started by showing images, which would provoke meaning, for example pictures from the war.

    • Word count: 2017
  21. Features are a magazines' biggest strength. What makes a good feature and a good feature writer?

    DEFINING FEATURE It is really hard to define the term 'feature' in its journalistic context. One finds it difficult to differentiate a feature article from an editorial, a column, a news story, a work of fiction, or creative writing. Quite interestingly people talk about weather, but cant do any thing about it, journalists on the other hand do feature writing, but seldom talk about it___ or at least they seldom define what a feature is and how it should be written.2 A feature is an article giving background information on certain events or personalities in the news.

    • Word count: 2570
  22. Colonialism - A game of Othello.

    One such policy where responses differ in one class, the peasants, was the switch to a capitalist structure for agriculture2 and giving the zamindars (rich peasants) full ownership of the land3. Prior to the British, land was seen as a community commodity shared between the three classes of peasants, the rich, middle and poor4. This interdependence led to peace during the Mughal period.5 However, when the view of land changed, the zamindars were free to manipulate the poor peasants working under them.

    • Word count: 2208
  23. Which functions do the mass media have? Where can we reproach them with manipulation and which effect do they have?

    Some fundamental points are regulated through the basic constitutional law, that everyone has the right to express his opinion in public as long as it doesn't offend against the regulations for protection of the youth and the personal honour. Moreover has everyone the right to make a correction if something wrong was told. The philosophy behind that is that information about different opinions will or want to help us to find the truth. It guaranties control and correction because there is a mutual process of arguments and counterarguments.

    • Word count: 1982
  24. Are Asylum seekers misrepresented in the Media?

    Part of the research focused on the press coverage of immigration. It revealed that during the period of January 2002 and July 2002, the amount of stories, which included references to 'asylum seekers' per month, averaged 700. The key thing to note here is that the term asylum seeker appeared in a variety of apparently non-related news-stories, without having any immediate apparent links to the main story covered. It would appear that during this period linking asylum seekers to diverse news reporting served as a way to keep the issue firmly in the public domain.

    • Word count: 1398
  25. Production Report - for a new, teenage magazine aimed at an audience of either or both genders within the range 13 to 19 year olds.

    I also decided to design a contents page to show what was going to be in the magazine. I chose to use neutral colours such as red, black, white and silver so that the magazine wasn't to profuse but still caught the reader's eyes. I made the title bold, I justified it and wrote it in upper and lower case, so it would stand out from the rest of the background. The main picture consisted of some of my friends (which were boys)

    • Word count: 1610

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