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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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ITV lunchtime news has a less formal feel as the newsreader has no desk to sit behind and the camera will look down on him/her. Received Pronunciation on the part of the newsreader is standard procedure with most news programmes, so much so that until recently 'BBC English' was synonymous with this style of speech. The appearance of the news became so farcical in the mid 90s that Chris Morris and Armando Ianucci created the media satire; 'The Day Today' which became the benchmark for all future parodies of news and current affairs and still sets the benchmark today, having never been surpassed.
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Why? Well, simply because the media companies are not covering these wars. I agree that media companies should deliver the stories that are most relevant to their subscribers, but then, does this not turn into a matter of delivering only the news their subscribers want to hear, and what the media companies want them to hear, not what is really happening. Moreover, it is just na�ve not to believe that the executives behind the scenes of these gigantic media conglomerates are not constantly in discussion with national heads of state about the content that should and should not be published or aired.
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Perhaps the animadversions have grown from the popular press' lack of seriousness, the deficiency of neutral, thorough and pointful coverage of what are deemed 'important' issues. Often, tabloid press coverage can, by its omission of facts and sensationalistic reporting, be misleading to the reader - a factor which seems to warrant criticism. This was evident in the Sun's coverage of the 20 April 1999 events in Serbia when a civilian convoy was gunned down by Nato troops - this is a fact and was admitted by Nato before the publication of the article: SERB MONSTERS SHOT REFUGEES THEN BLAMED US "A Nato commander insisted yesterday that Serbs slaughtered Kosovan refugees in a convoy massacre blamed on the Alliance...
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Critically evaluate the relationship between newspapers and their readership between 1896 and 1950 in the UK.
These were mainly concerned with political news (the Proceedings in Parliament etc) and to some extent worked as manifestos for the different political figures. In this early period these publications were controlled and restricted by the government and were solely aimed at the ruling and educated classes. They were, however, slow to evolve, with the largely illiterate population relying on town criers for news. To prevent 'miss use' of the press several measures were used and also introduced to retain a harness on the flow of information. For example the Star Chamber, a council used to enforce the will of the king, became involved with controlling what was allowed to be printed.
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The media did build up and as the war became progressively more serious, journalists were sent out in increasing numbers. I believe it would be fair to say that media presence in Vietnam itself increased approximately in proportion to the military presence. The media back in the US were also reporting on the war and their stories also included the increase in anti-war sentiment. These stories included the 'Students for a Democratic Society' rally in 1965 and the Washington D.C.
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The most significant contribution to the growing status of the press by the end of the nineteenth century was made by new patterns of ownership and management', do you agree?
Other technical advances which were not directly linked to newspapers also helped the expansion of the press. The railways for example allowed the large London daily's to grow ever larger as their papers travelled nation-wide, much to the disappointment of the provincial papers (Lee, 1978). The provincial papers did benefit though, through the telegraph allowing them to receive important information from around the nation to add extra substance to the local news, which they relied on (Lee, 1978). These technological factors, joined with a growing population, urbanisation, larger material prosperity and the overall increase in education, meant that the management and ownership of newspapers was forced to change (Lee, 1978).
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In the light of a number of recent high profile complaints about invasion of privacy, critically assess whether or not the UK press should continue to be self-regulating.
As Chippendale and Horrie put it, Hillsborough was "an unparalleled journalistic disaster" for the Sun. Such incidents amassed many complaints against the press, however there was no official regulatory body or formal codes of practice. The Press Council, which was established in 1953, had the aim to "maintain high ethical standards of journalism and promote press freedom" (www.pcc.org.uk/students/info3.htm). However, it was soon criticised for its ineffectiveness in dealing with certain complaints as it had no statutory power and no money.
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This essay seeks to investigate how women's magazines, which are published in the twenty-first century, extend and maintain notions of femininity.
These are the basic ideas that maintain notions of femininity, which I will now discuss. For many years women have struggled to gain respect from men especially in the nineteenth and twentieth century, where they have campaigned to be given the same kinds of opportunities as men are. However it would appear that by reading most of the magazines that are available on the market, it would seem they represent a view of sexual empowerment for women readers, which is in alignment with the advertisers idea of female identity. Throughout many of these magazines women are seen to have limited power, i.e.
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Both prejudice and discrimination are often based on stereotypes about particular groups of people. In order to research these attacks we are going to use various methods, making sure that we follow the three most prominent criteria for the evaluation of social research, which are according to Bryman (2001) are reliability, replication and validity. Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. Reliability according to Bryman is very close to another criterion of research- replication and more especially replicability. It sometimes happens that researchers choose to replicate the findings of others.
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By doing so, both under-representing and typecasting minorities, the media are solidifying stereotypes, which then impact upon the public perception of minorities. The results are threefold. This not only hinders the public's ability to view the world unreservedly, but it impinges on the ethnic communities right to democracy and it also sacrifices the integrity and morality of the mainstream media. In this essay, I will examine 15 articles dealing with the topic of 'Racism in the Media''. I will investigate whether the marginalisation of ethnic minority groups is confirmed by their omission from print and broadcast realities.
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This resulted in the creation of policies such as 'Black Codes', which limited the freedom of blacks. Furthermore, many authoritarian whites were unable to contend with blacks having equal status. As a consequence groups such as the Ku Klux Klan were formed which saw a 'wave of violence rage almost unchecked in large parts of the post war South'2. These factors combined, Reconstruction not only meant a time of increased rights and opportunities, but also a time of great frustration, and often great fear.
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S.E.A.R.C.Hing has been used in order to uncover social differences between different groups in society. Each letter stands for the different categories in which individuals may be socially advantages and disadvantaged.
This advertisements conveys the idea that the woman in still happy and cheerful even in her chaotic, messy kitchen. These advertisements were the norm in magazines up until the 1970/80/90's. The portrayal of women in the media reflected the change of status of women in society. Women gained rights such as voting rights and entered the workforce. Main occupation for women however was teaching but this wouldn't always be the case. In today's society women are seen as much more powerful, sexual beings. In advertisements you hardly ever see a washing machine or vacuum cleaner present, nor is she ever in the kitchen.
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The printing press had a great influence on the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century and without the use of this technology Martin Luther would not have been nearly as successful in his challenging of the Catholic Church.
Eisenstein said of the publishers in Strasbourg, "[they] did much more than mirror the Reform; they prepared its way, they secured its results".3 The printing press did not only produce copies of Luther's Ninety-five Theses, but also Bibles and reproductions of sections of the Bible written in the vernacular so that everyone had the Word of God available to them. The German translation of the Bible sold in vast numbers throughout the sixteenth century and Luther's first edition of the New Testament, printed in 1522, was completely sold within the first ten weeks of sale.
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To what extent does the print-media influence young people into smoking, in relation to the recent restrictions on tobacco advertising?
A study by the Centre for Media Education on pro-smoking websites will be detailed in the dissertation, as will the sinister attempts to endorse smoking to teenagers by tobacco companies. The subject of anti-smoking campaigns, the latest larger health warnings on cigarette packets and the increasing cost of cigarettes will all be detailed in the dissertation. Chapter Two The next issue to be covered is the rise of teenage smoking, throughout Britain, and the health risks involved. The dissertation will research into studies of young smokers that have been conducted and attempt to understand why the habit is adopted.
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"UK national newspapers have adopted a racist attitude in their coverage of recent international events (i.e.; terrorism, asylum seekers, war with Iraq)." Discuss.
Looking at this paradigm, which represents the various styles and news values of newspapers, it was found that The Daily Mirror and The Daily Mail would be sitting in the centre. It is hoped that by prioritising these two newspapers an overall picture of racist attitudes in UK newspapers may be presented. Moving on it would be worth investigating the term 'racist attitude' as mentioned in the essay question. Racism could be termed as being one of the sub categories of discrimination, the irrational ideology which breeds on the underlying hatred of others.
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1963 VS. 2002 - Little has changed since the creation of Mademoiselle Magazine in the mid 1930's. Even though society has developed into a consumer driven enterprise, the magazine has been and still is edited to attract women ages eighteen to thirty-four
What has changed however is the aesthetic composition of the magazine, less inhibited articles pertaining to the opposite sex, and the addition of numerous advertisements and pictures of celebrities to which recent culture has become obsessed. The table of contents in the 1963 September issue of Mademoiselle and the 2002 October issue of Glamour magazine hold such apparent similarities it is almost impossible to determine which magazine is from the past. Starting with the cover headlines, each magazine features advice in both fashion and beauty and has many separate articles pertaining to each of these subjects.
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This is a method I decided to adopt in order for my audience to relate to my character by exploring the commonality of experiences, which provides the audience with a comical reassurance of their everyday lifestyle. An example of this can be seen in my article; 'I rushed through the ever-growing crowd of people, who incidentally all seemed to be heading in the totally opposite direction to me, in a bid to catch my bus.' Theories indicate that audiences' posses the need for reinforcement of self-understanding and indulgence, thus they find comfort in the media and compare their own lives to those portrayed in pieces such as this.
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The author's main point is that editors should take the audience more seriously. This is not necessarily the case in my community, as I shall explore later. Habermas (1994) talks about a public sphere in which the people would talk about issues and the press would cover these issues. Now it seems that the press is selective in nature and it provides the topics of discussion. This trend can be seen with regards to letters to the editor as Editors choose which letters they want published.
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Newspaper Analysis - I am basing my analysis on The Sun and The Guardian both from Thursday 15th February 2001.
Guardian on Thursday 15th February 2001 - 117,216cm� Category Area cm� Area % Celebrity 10110 8.6 Politics 3888 3.3 Health 4915 4.1 American News 1339 1.1 Banners/Contents 3140 2.6 General/Human interest 8610 7.3 Adverts 35045 29.8 Sport 6.7 6.7 Cartoons/Cross Words/Problem pages etc. 1444 1.2 World News 8406 7.1 Technology/Science News 11014 9.3 Home News 4317 3.6 Crime 2048 1.7 Royalty 336 0.2 Fasion 495 0.4 Money 11059 9.4 All measurements to the nearest cm. No. of pictures C P S O Child, White, Female 1 1 Young, White, Female 16 5 1 9 Middle, White, Female 6 3 1
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The biggest difference between cultural industries or the media and other industries, is that while conventional industries produce goods that are tangible, media industries produce goods that are both tangible as well as intangible.
A lot of money generated by these different industries goes back into advertising. Media industries like traditional ones also have a largely triangular structure of ownership and power, in that there is usually one person or a few people owning a particular industry. This top-down structure has quite a substantial ripple on media industries. Critics believe that while owners of traditional industries are purely concerned by profit, media owners are also concerned about ideology, and promoting their agenda's. In Post Cold War 1990, There was a rise in a global commercial media system which is closely linked to the rise of a significantly and more integrated global capitalist economic system.
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Can anything operated on a commercial basis ever report any views which differ from the generally accepted ones? In reporting on politics, is the media being influenced by the interests of its owners?' I will primarily concentrate on newspapers, because, in my opinion, that is the medium which has gone through the greatest changes and also one that may face even more obstacles in the future. In the century which has past since the first tabloids came on the market, the layout and contents of the papers have changed dramatically. This is, in some ways, due to the competition encountered from the other media, like television and radio, but also due to the fact that in this period, the survival of a newspaper has become dependent upon advertising.
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" Sorry, No McDonalds" This advertisement use minor sentence, stress , colloquialism technique. It use easy slogan. It also make people think about holiday. The target is high income people. I would place this advertisement in high quality magazine or billboard. "IN CASE OF EMERGENCY" This advertisement is the advertise of Hershey chocolate. It use Colloquialism technique , Graphological thick. It means that when there's a problem this can save you. After you eat this you will be happy.
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The popularity of the magazine directly affect the interests of advertisers, that's what actually makes a magazine company really care, as the ads' publish fees are the main source of income for a magazine company. Those loyal readers are just tools that are made use of earning money. I think Pulp's aim should be: "we have always been to make effort to entertain those stupid picture lovers and rich illiteracies or our 'busy' young peoples (who don't have enough time and patient to do some literal readings)
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that was killed while he was working, (for certain reasons he has climbing a tree and fell down) doing one of his jobs, and this was one of their paragraph where we can see how they refer to this man that was saving to buy his own house: "Morse, who owned his own landscaping business as well as working at the Home Deport store in Danvers, had been working on a new family home in Hamilton, and was only a month away from moving in, according to family members."1 Like this article I read many, who described situation of people that had a low paid job.
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In this respect, if the audience is politically conservative then the media will have to respond to this. A newspaper, for example, that insists upon representing left wing viewpoints cannot expect to survive in the marketplace if the potential audience does not agree with such views (or vice versa). According to pluralists, the main sources of media bias come not from the ideological beliefs of owners, but simply from technical constraints imposed upon various media. For example newspapers, by their very nature, have to deal with events that happen over a relatively short space of time. Television also, because of the relatively limited time available has to present words and images in a highly simplified, shorthand form that keys into the attitudes and levels of understanding of an audience.
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