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University Degree: Paper-based media studies
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These were seen by the Glasgow Media Group as underplaying the effects of the torpedo attack, with an emphasis on how many of the crew could be saved. Despite the lack of information, the bulletins carried an hopeful air of optimism. On 4th May the theme was of survivors, with an expert called in by the BBC, for comment of the chances of the crew, given the proper training. This contrasted with the headlines of foreign newspapers, such as the New York Post, crying - "Fear Hundreds Dead in Sea Battle".
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'Truth is the first casualty of War.' Discuss with reference to journalism from the Crimean War to Iraq 2003.
John Pilger, one of today's most well respected war reporters, has witnessed many conflicts and has experienced first had the frustration suffered by a war correspondent. "The virulence of an unrecognised censorship often concealed behind false principles of objections, whose effect is to minimise and deny the culpability of Western power in acts of great violence and terrorism."1 William Howard Russel has been quoted as one of the first and the greatest war correspondents, and his coverage of the Crimean War in 1854 was a highly significant mile stone in the history of journalism.
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As a result, the media is a necessary instrument in political communication. Communication has evolved as a direct result of technology. There has been an explosion in the number of news outlets available to distribute the information. The twentieth century saw a proliferation of telephones, faxes, computer modems (that spawned the Internet), electronic mail, and network/cable/satellite television that gave birth to round-the-clock news stations like CNN. This does not include the "old-fashioned" means such as radio and print. This rapid evolution allows for an idea to be expressed in a matter of seconds, to an audience that vastly outnumbers the audiences of the past.
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My vulnerable semi consciousness already affected by crude advertising before hand and eye are coordinated to slam the snooze button. The Saturday Age greets me in a less intrusive, although still attention-grabbing manner. The bold headlines demand consideration, striking photos tantalize the imagination and advertisements entice by sophistication, among other ploys. T.V Hits hums in the background while I sift through the paper, now too expansive to be rolled into one single cylinder. Just a regular Saturday morning and the media inundation I am embraced with is taken for granted before even stepping out of the comfort of my pyjamas.
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She also goes through the struggles and hardships some societies of native women had to go through. In the book American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492, by Russell Thornton (University of Oklahoma Press, 1987) native women are scarcely mentioned. Thornton discusses women very briefly and is more interested in the native society as a whole. Women are mentioned in areas of the book containing fertility declines, the Cheyenne flight in which women and children were brutally murdered, the 1870 Ghost Dance, health care, and intermarriage.
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They achieve this by providing informative articles that identify key strategies of successful entrepreneurs and business people. This has boosted circulation to over 100,000 since its first issue in September 2002 generating a cash surplus for the owners.2 Competitor Profile: WCM has many competitors in the business investment magazine category with Money, My Business, Personal Investor, Australian Property Investment, and Dynamic Small Business magazines being the top rival publications. Industry Trends: Research has shown the business investment magazine category is a mature market and is currently in decline. Scenarios: Best Case: The magazine increases circulation and revenue by continuing to differentiate themselves from their competitors based on content and not price, to meet demands of the target demographic.
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This paper provides a written analysis on the marketing strategies used by the local traveling magazine - "Hong Kong Discovery" of how it uses marketing and promotional tools to survive in the competitive magazine world.
With the honorable natural reserve and helps of Government promotion, people begins to have more environmental awareness, the growing market for ecotourism and its linkage between environmental organizations makes "Hong Kong Discovery" the most successful publication among its genre. 2.2 Goals and Objectives The primary goal of such magazine is to arouse public awareness on environmental issue such as pollution and destruction and asking others to protect the nature other than just for fun and interest. They believe their commercial success depends upon the growing market for health and higher living standard of people and the natural environment is the main concern.
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Of course this is just his view, nonetheless he could indeed have a point. When Loaded first burst onto the scene, it was certainly a first of its kind, and when released there was no doubt it was exploring a gap in the market. Yes, there were existing magazines that were similar, such as Arena & GQ, but they were more into men's grooming and fashion. What Loaded did was to experiment and push out the boundaries, by trying to relate to men. They did with surprising ease by combining parts of life that men are interested in - women, music, sex, jokes & football.
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George Boyce, a revisionist, even commented that the British press with "its head in politics and its feet in commerce" had turned the fourth estate into a sheer "myth"4 This paper will attempt to argue that in this current age, the press with all its powers, might be abused by press barons and become a threat to both British politics and its liberal democracy. Norman Angell once slammed the era of press barons as "the worst of all the menaces to modern democracy".5 When there is a concentration of press ownership in the case of Britain, the plight of democracy
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Although he was the first historian to write in a factual, informative and methodical style, which later historians adapted and then adopted, his works are unique in style, which has lead to both criticism and to praise. Herodotus wrote The Histories years after the events in question took place. He was not witnessing the events which he was concerned with, which has been attacked by many, including the historian Thucydides who believed that it was impossible to write about an era, accurately, that you were not witnessing and as a result of writing about events years prior to when written, historians can create a false impression of the past to future generations.
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With confidence up, the progressive intellectuals proceeded to whip up a hysterical Red Scare and took great pride in showing the more intelligent members of the community how they were able to drive a reluctant population by eliciting jingoist fanaticism. The global commercial media system works to advance the cause of the global market and to promote commercial values while denigrating journalism and culture if it was not conducive to the bottom line of corporate interests. But until the 1980s, media systems in general were national in scope with broadcasting systems and newspaper industries domestically owned and regulated.
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This will be proven by examining the text of the ad with the images that are shown simultaneously and interpeting the relevance of the combination in associtaoin with explaining the significance of the time period when the ad was released. "First Chioce" opens with a man giving a speech. As he talks images are shown with his voice in the background being the sound. After the initial shot of the man is shown a slide that says, "Senator John McCain on the war on terror and President Bush" flashes to explain who is talking and what the speech discusses.
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Contemporary journalism has come under scrutiny as various studies have analysed the social roles and effects of it in the modern world.
Figures like Rupert Murdoch have become key players in the news world. Murdoch owns many news providers the world over. A close look at Murdoch's empire would show that his view of the world would be to the right. Murdoch has never been as blatant as Robert Maxwell who on purchasing 'The Mirror' declared 'I have bought a megaphone and I intend to use it'i but at the same time has used his holdings as an agenda setting tool. The Columbia Journalism Review published a scathing opinion on how Murdoch operates 'Murdoch uses his diverse holdings, which includes newspapers, magazines, sports teams, a movie studio, and a book publisher, to promote his own financial interests at the expense of real news gathering, legal and regulatory rules, and journalistic ethics.
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Is journalism a profession? What arguments and evidence would you put forth to support or deny any claim that journalism has to being a profession?
Being a professional in a particular field involves having a certain level of accomplishment, as opposed to amateurism. It also denotes commitment, in both an ethical and moral sense to one's career or organisation. From this perspective, journalism fits the definition of a profession with little debate. However, if we consider what constitutes a profession from a sociological perspective, the scenario is not so clear-cut. There are three key factors that differentiate a profession from any other employment. These defining factors consist of specific qualifications, a central body with particular codes of conduct and a certain level of hierarchy as a result of that profession.
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Secondly, we need to communicate through language - made up of words, sounds and images which carry meanings - therefore we see them as signs. This indicates that signs make up the meaning systems of our culture. We'll start with visual texts. They are almost always a combination of words and pictures, and whereas the process of reading and interpreting words is usually lengthy, the meaning derived from photographs - or the level of signification, is almost immediate. The meaning derived from the headline is also effectively just as immediate - as it is a short collection of words designed for direct significatory impact.
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The relationships between east and west, white and black, colonised and coloniser took a particular form during the early nineteenth century which can be traced through certain aspects of the novel yet are constantly undermined by the ironic tone of Marlow's narrative function and therefore bring the importance of historical perspectives in analysing literature to light. In order to assess the extent to which historical context is relevant to "Heart of Darkness" the three main areas which must be addressed are the capacity for its power and insight to be contained solely within the text, the alignment and identification of
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The topics discussed in these magazines were 'avid for information and were subjects which were fit for family conversation'.1In 1894, Harmsworth entered the newspaper field, purchasing the nearly bankrupt London Evening News and transformed it into a popular newspaper with brief news reports, a daily story, and a column for women. In 1896 the profits from this venture led Harmsworth to launch the Daily Mail. Harmsworth was ennobled as Lord Northcliffe, and used many ideas that had been generated during the run of 'Answers to Correspondents' in the Daily Mail.
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In other words, it is a mouthpiece of the state - nothing more. In most democratic countries the press has a certain measure of freedom. I can raise its voice against the government and in fact can belong wholly to an opposition party and attack the government of the day, as long as it keeps within the law. Herein lies the catch: It is the government which decides what the law is. If one follows this lien of argument, what may happen is that the press's freedom can be curbed by just passing new laws.
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How far are the articles of the Press Complaints Commission's code of practice backed up by the law and therefore enforceable in the courts?
Since the original code was published in 1991 there has been nearly 30 changes to it. The introduction to the Code of Practice states that: 'All members of the press have a duty to maintain the highest professional and ethical standards. This code sets the benchmarks for those standards. It both protects the rights of the individual and upholds the public's right to know. The code is the cornerstone of the system of self-regulation to which the industry has made a binding commitment. Editors and publishers must ensure that the code is observed rigorously not only by their staff but by anyone who contributes to their publication.
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Roelofse(1995: 50) quotes McQuail in saying that this theory [Authoritarianism] explains systems in all counties where there is no true independence for journalists and where the latter are forced to submit to more or less absolute government control. He goes on to say that censorship and the punishment of those who deviate from external press policies/guidelines, which are usually politically/ideologically aligned. "The theory is reflected in legislation, direct state control, enforceable codes of conduct, the use of taxation and other forms of economic sanctions, controlled import/export of foreign media material, the right of the government to appoint editorial staff, and so forth".
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If block meets the criterion, it is not divided any further. If it does not meet the criterion (only black or only white value), it is subdivided again into four blocks, and the test criterion is applied to those blocks. This process is repeated iteratively until each block meets the criterion. * Each region divided into 4 quadrants * Examine if all black or white * Quadrant with black + white = =grey * Grey quadrants are subdivided until sub-quadrants are all black or white only * A unique string of symbols (b,w)
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system of exploitative control of people and resources exists to an extent, as it describes the cultural dominance of western societies; however there is a trend towards globalization in the media and the news. According to Featherstone (1990) 'Globalisation is defined to exclude domination, cultural control and social revolution.'4 Contributing to this is 'the increase in the number of international agencies and institutions, the increasing global forms of communication, the acceptance of unified global time, the development of standard notions of citizenship, rights and conception of human kind.
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Your eyes tend to be drawn by the larger photograph first in the centre of the page. It shows Ruby Wax, the subject of the story, who is wearing a glamorous velvet dress and with the distinct colors of the red lipstick, is doing her dusting. She holds a vacuum cleaner in the left hand and a feather duster in the right hand with a luxurious house as the background. The smaller photograph shows Ruby in a low cut dress lying on the bed in a sexy pose. Before reading this article, I didn't know who Ruby Wax was.
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Press freedom and censorship are flipsides of the same coin - Which side should be applicable, given the focus of newspapers today?
The British Guardian newspaper reported that the US Defense Department has spent millions of dollars to prevent western media from seeing highly accurate photographs, taken by privately owned satellites, which show the effects of the bombing. While censorship of the press may be necessary to prevent negative mindset, the newspaper should not shield realities, which affect the global community at large, and thus, press freedom should be exercised as opposed to censorship. Freedom of the press allows for social stability by providing the truth of what occurs in society.
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Such examples clearly emphasise what the press is really about - catering for the masses. They need to sell papers and thus need to attract readers. This isn't achieved through intricate detail, accuracy of purported events or deep insightful commentary, but instead through entertainment - a type often based on the spurious word of hacks. Selling sexually explicit stories or an elaborate version of events has always made commercial sense. Now, with an unprecedented increase in the number of media outlets, it makes more sense than ever.
- Word count: 1416