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University Degree: Criminology
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Compare positivist approaches to crime with at least two other perspectives discussed in the module. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches you review?
This essay will discuss three prominent theories in the explanation of crime. This essay will compare positivist approaches to crime with two other perspectives: the classical school and the conflict theory. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these approaches will also be discussed. Firstly, positivism is divided into three main categories: 1) biological, 2) psychological and 3) sociological positivism. These formulations of positivism are based on the same theoretical foundations. 'They argued that crime resulted not from what criminals had in common with others in society, but from their distinctive physical or mental defects' (Crime theory, Positivist, 1998).
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Critically assess the extent to which discriminatory practices within the criminal justice process operate against ethnic minorities
who goes through the criminal justice process has the right to be treated fairly and without discrimination (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2008). However, there are some groups who receive differentiated treatment when they come into contact with the criminal justice system either as suspects or as victims of crime. These groups include women, youth/juveniles and cultural minorities (Department of Criminology, 2006/07). This essay will discuss the extent to which discriminatory practices within the criminal justice process operate against minority ethnic groups.
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What has the government done to change the regime of non-disclosure of evidence which has led to numerous miscarriages of justice?
However it is not always seen to be the case by prosecutors or police where there priority is to obtain a conviction. An example of how important this regime is and also the dire consequences of its failure is the case of Stefan kiszko1; he was convicted in 1976 for the rape and murder of 11-year old Lesley Molseed in 1975. Evidence that showed he was sterile (which rendered him incapable of producing the forensic evidence found at the scene)
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Three levels of law. There are three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions that exist in the United States. The three major law agencies are Federal, State, and Local. Each of these has created a variety of police agencies to enforce laws.
One of the most well known agencies was the Texas Rangers, who were created in 1835. Before Texas attained statehood and functioned as a military organization that was responsible for patrolling the Republics borders. The apprehension of Mexican cattle rustlers was one of the main concerns at that time. Massachusetts was the second state to create a law enforcement agency. Usually state law enforcement agencies are organized after one of two models. The first of which is a centralized model, where the tasks of major criminal investigations are combined with the patrol of state highways.
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Criminal theories. Many theories and categories exist about why crimes are caused. Some of those theories include; Biological Theories, Conflict Theories, Sociological Theories, and Psychological Theories.
Later, in the mid 1900s William Sheldon developed the method for classifying people based on their body type, otherwise known as somatotyping. After studying two-hundred juvenile delinquents between the ages of fifteen and twenty-one he decided the young men possessed one of three somatypes (body types). The three body types are Mesomorphs, which is someone with relatively more muscle, bone, and connective tissue, Endomorphs, or someone who is more round and soft throughout various regions of their body, short tapering and small limbs; small bones; and soft smooth velvety skin, and Ectomorphs which is someone that is thin, fragile, and delicate.
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Word count - 295 QUESTION 2 i) 10 + 70 = 80 ii) 10 � 95 = 0.10526316 0.10526316 x 100 = 10.526316 Answer = 10.5% of students neither agree nor disagree with the statement iii) The overall distribution of the scores in the bar chart sits with mostly agrees as 70 out of 95 students mostly agree with the statement. The other 25 students are distributed as follows; 10 students neither agree nor disagree, 10 students also defiantly agree with the statement and the lowest amount of students being only 5 that mostly disagree.
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Control theories are limited in their explanations of criminality as they are only able to address juvenile street crime. Critically analyse this statement.
When taken to the extreme, social control theory dismisses or ignores motivational issues. Travis Hirschi viewed the motivations as so natural to human beings that no special forces were necessary to explain law breaking. He stated that; "Law- breaking is often the most immediate source of gratification or conflict resolution, and no special motivation is required to explain such behaviour." (Hirschi, 1969) He also advocated that human beings are active, flexible individuals who will engage in a range of activities, unless the range is limited by processes of socialisation and social learning. However, many control-oriented theorists do introduce motivating forces, pressures and pulls into their explanations.
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The Growing Realisation of the Importance of Placing Victims at the Heart of the Criminal Justice System is Long Overdue. Discuss.
For the argument of this essay a victim can be defined as "a person who suffers physical, emotional, and financial harm because of a illegal activity" (Karman, 2007, p383), therefore being a victim includes more than just the person who was targeted by an offender, it also can include their family, their friends, and any witnesses. There can also be those victims that have not physical suffered from a criminal act but have been socialised into fearing crime to such an extent that they have victimized themselves.
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Consider what Social and Personal Factors might predict whether People become Victims of Crime and Offenders.
This essay is also going to use research conducted by The Home Office and other governmental agencies. After examining these factors, this essay is going to see if there are any similarities between a typical victim and offender and try to explain why these similarities are present. When considering someone's geographical area, you firstly have to distinguish what type of area they live in as there are three sub-categories within the geographical area subject. There is the inner city area which is generally comprised of the central parts of the big cities, which are usually older and often characterized by overcrowding neighbourhoods usually from either low incomes or from minority groups.
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IDENTIFY CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF LOCAL CRIME PREVENTION PLANNING. DISCUSS THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF ENGAGING RELEVANT STAKEHOLDERS:
This is largely due to local parties having vast knowledge and capacities to identify specific crime precipitating factors that statewide and regional strategies sometimes fail to acknowledge (QLD government 2002). Thus, the risk of being less effective in preventing crime the inclusion of partnerships and agency cooperation is key to a crime prevention plan as supporters for the multi-agency view it as being the 'panacea' of the criminal justice crisis (Crawford and Jones 1995). Some key components of a local crime prevention plan will be outlined below: It must be noted that disceprancies arsie in proposed methods of research in
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What is crime? There are many definitions of crime however crime is ultimately an act which breaks a law currently being policed which is known as the legal definition or an act that breaks a set of common norms or moral codes which is known as the normative definition. Someone, somewhere at sometime decided what a law would be and possibly based this on their own ideas and preferences. Crime whether legal or normative is based on society's assumptions and or perceptions and is therefore a social construction.
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to communication and help with managing the common impacts of sexual assault including fear, disbelief, shame, guilt, nightmares, depression, anxiety and self harming (Maguire, 1982 as cited by Spalek, 2006, p.73). The RCC is continually seeking to improve pathways to service provision through publication and promotion of the service. They state on their website that they seek to distribute at least 2000 pamphlets, 1000 stickers and 200 promotional kits annually; they also seek to provide information and comment to ten media outlets annually in the aim of enhancing access and service delivery to clients.
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WITH REFERENCE TO ONE PARTICULAR SURVEILANCE TECHNIQUE OF YOUR CHOICE, ASSESS THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL REASONS DRIVING ITS GROWTH
CCTV is a telling example of the assemblage qualities of surveillance. While CCTV is often referred to as a single entity, it is actually comprised of multiple agendas and artefacts. Surveillance is recognised as an elementary building block for all societies, since the act of socialism would be unthinkable without the surveillance of adults, how else would children be fabricated into actual competent members of society. At a more complex level surveillance is also recognised as one of the central mechanisms through which the modern state achieves the routine administrative functions of providing welfare, health, education and security for its population.
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One of the steps is that the government has asked the question of religious identity in the 2001 census so a clear understanding of religious diversity can be understood in the UK. However there has been other research that has been done in great detail to explore the exact data showing how Muslims living in the UK are discriminated against and excluded. Overall, there has been little research done into the nature and extent of religious discrimination in the UK (Hepple et al 2001).
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A witness of fact is any individual member of the public who is placed before the court with no expertise in any subject specific area. Witnesses' of fact are designated to give evidence that is factual and are not permitted to give hearsay evidence of any variety (Rothwell, 2004). Hearsay evidence is described as information which has been told to them by another party (Rothwell, 2004). Expert witnesses are different from witnesses of fact because they not only give factual evidence but they are also encouraged to give their own opinions as long as they can supply reasoning behind it (Rothwell, 2004).
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These figures are then published annually and printed in the Home Office publication which later came to be known as Criminal Statistics (Goodey, 2005). Although, official statistics produce data on the extent of crime as reported to and recorded by the police, victimisation Surveys are better at determining the 'true rates' of crime as it reports crime that is not reported to the police (Goodey, 2005). Victimisation surveys have been referred to as the tools that are better at unmasking the 'dark figure' of crime (Goodey, 2005).
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Critically analyse the extent to which the interests of the female victim have been addressed in the ensuing reforms of the law of rape
The Home Office acknowledged that this had led to a 'patchwork quilt of provisions'5. The previous law was also plagued by inconsistencies, inappropriate language and discrimination, some of which may have been interpreted as violating human rights legislation. Starting with a pledge by the newly elected 1997 Labour government to help victims of sexual offences obtain justice, a detailed and lengthy review process was initiated in 1999, which led to the SOR 20006. This was followed by a Sexual Offences Bill and then, finally, the arrival of the SOA 2003, which came into force in May 2004.
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The opening on the skull is called trephine, which allowed the evil spirit to escape the head. Another type of treatment for a person affected by bad spirit was exorcism. According to Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, (2007), exorcism techniques varied but typically included magic and prayer. According to Butcher, Mineka and Hooley (2007), "references to abnormal behavior in early writings show that the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks often attributed such behavior to a demon or god who had taken possession of a person" (p. 28). It is important to mention that Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) recognized the importance of environment.
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This comparison portrays the movement between the public execution and the modern prison. The movement represents the shift from the body to soul for Foucault. The body exists and there are limits of punishments those the body can be exposed to whereas the soul allows new types. In short, the transportation from the body to soul has brought the end of public execution. By a supporting sentence, he notes that "this book is intended as a correlative history of the modern soul and of a new power to judge; a genealogy of..." (Foucault, 1977) Moreover, his study obeys four rules according to Foucault: one) to regard punishment as a complex social function; two)
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In his early study, Bayley asserts that three characteristics of the police contemporarily exist in today's world and these as dichotomous are public/private, specialized/no specialized, professional/nonprofessional. Being public/private oriented refers to the nature of the police agency and can easily be confused with community authorization, specialization for a police agency, in opposite terms of that unspecialized police force is authorized to use force but do many other things as well, concentres on the application of force, and professionalism refers to explicit preparation to perform the unique police function (Bayley, 1990, p: 11-13).
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Definition and Approaches 'Football hooliganism', as a label, is not a fixed term either officially or unofficially that is used mostly by the media or other subjects. Spaaij (2006, p.10) has argued that in the social scientific debate, labels such as 'sports violence' and 'football-related violence' are often used as coverer terms to express various types of violence in a sports context. As it is also stated in Peter E. Marsh's study (1977, p.256), even if the phenomenon of 'football hooliganism' is viewed as major category of crime, it is not truly being used.
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Whilst the probation service had been using a variety of un-evaluated programmes the prison service had developed a 'quality assurance system based on an accreditation procedure for group programmes' (Raynor, 2002, p1189). The Home Office decided that the Probation Service should follow suit and in 1999 a Joint Prison and Probation Accreditation panel was formed to 'quality assure' the delivery of Probation and Prison run rehabilitative CBT programmes (Hendderman & Hough, 2004, p153). At the same time as these changes the Crime and Disorder Act 1999 pushed for 'joined up' multiagency work ethic in order as to get 'Tough on Crime' and move forward using 'joined up solutions' and a 'devolution of power to local people rationale' (Pitts, 2000, p).
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Jock Young referred to the growth in recorded crime during the years of the Keynesian Welfare state in the UK as an aetiological crisis for criminology. The expectation had been that with rising living standards and increased welfare provision crime would fall. Criminologists have become so used to explaining rising crime that they might now face a second aetiological crisis - explaining falling crime rates Essentially the ecological, or holistic, view is that a neighbourhood is like an ecosystem. An ecosystem has many parts to it, which fit more or less together to give that system some form of balance.
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It is through these changes in law that crime changes and thus could be argued to be socially constructed. Commack and Brickey (1991, p.15) argue that 'law can be said to have a distinctly social basis; it both shapes - and is shaped by - the society in which it operates". Societies perceptions and values are ever changing and with them so is the law and thus the crime rate. This is clearly evident through the differences between countries. What is illegal in certain societies is legal in others; take the above example the chewing gum ban in Singapore.
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