"Conventional wisdom holds that governments that deliver economic prosperity tend to secure re-election whereas those associated with economic failure tend to lose office." Discussed in respect to the 2001 general election.
"Conventional wisdom holds that governments that deliver economic prosperity tend to secure re-election whereas those associated with economic failure tend to lose office." (Sanders and Brynin). Given that the 1997 General Election was held after a prolonged period of economic recovery in Britain, how can one explain the outcome? What does it tell us about the value of perspectives that link economic prosperity or failure with election outcomes? Briefly consider your findings in the light of the 2001 general election. (You will be given credit for discussing the methodological problems that arise in this type of analysis.) "It's the economy stupid" is the famous response (ever since Bill Clinton coined it in his 1992 election campaign) to people who ask what matters in an election. It is certainly true to say that there is a lot of evidence from electoral research that voters' choices are conditioned heavily by economic conditions and by their view of the ability of competing parties to manage those conditions. However, as this essay will show it is people's perception of the economy and how the parties can manage it, rather than the actual economic prosperity of the country, that affects how people vote. It can also be argued how far other factors affect voting choice, especially in the post 1997 election period. Ever since the explanatory power of social class
"How can prejudice be explained in Social Psychological terms?"
PS102 Essay 1 - "How can prejudice be explained in Social Psychological terms?" "The killing of Americans and their civilian and military allies is a religious duty for each and every Muslim. We, with God's help, call on every Muslim who believes in God and wishes to be rewarded to comply with God's order to kill Americans and plunder their money whenever and wherever they find it." "The September 11th attack gave a harsh lesson to these arrogant peoples, for whom freedom is but for the white race...God willing, America's end is near." --Osama Bin Laden, in a February, 1998, appeal to Muslims, and a videotaped statement in the fall of 2001. It is hard to find a more explicit example of prejudice than this appeal by Osama bin Laden. Although sociologists often differ in their precise definitions of the term prejudice, it invariably involves a negative attitude toward the members of a certain group, based solely upon their membership in that group. From Osama bin Laden's viewpoint, non-Muslim Americans are the group he holds a negative attitude against and hence the main target of the various hostile manifestations of his prejudiced attitude. The purpose of this essay is to describe the commonly accepted social psychological explanations for this implacable social phenomenon, to present the reasons that have been put forth by social psychologists over the years as to how
"If one accepts that it is through close conditioning that a women learns to conform, and that it is this close supervision w
"If one accepts that it is through close conditioning that a women learns to conform, and that it is this close supervision which prevents criminality, then any lessening of the control would lead to increased criminality" (Williams 2004, pp. 469-70) Introduction In a direct response to the quotation, the essay will attempt to identify a possible causal link between the development of the modern 'women's movement' and an assumed increase in female criminality. The discourse and debates within the discipline will be evaluated to determine if there has been an increased female criminality since the 1960's. The assessment will further be improved by analogy of criminal statistics prior and post manumission and collate those findings to current statistical data. Other suggested alternative explanations, social forces such as 'marginalisation' and the possible changing attitudes of law enforcement agencies in regards to the processing of female offenders will also be considered. In regards to the ensuing impact of a feminist critique, the creation of various strands of feminist theory will be outlined and defined within the appendix because of the wordage constraint. 'Malestream' Criminology Historically, to a large extent, Criminology through facilitation of its meta- narratives has been perceived as failing to provide valid explanations and empirical research in relation to
"In the 5th Republic, parliament has become powerless" Discuss.
"In the 5th Republic, parliament has become powerless." Discuss. The Birth of the 5th Republic was a typically French affair with a radical complete overhaul of the political system. This change was created by General Charles de Gaulle. The French Parliament is set out in article 24 of the 5th Republic constitution of the 4th October 1958 and is made up primarily of the National Assembly which is directly elected and consist of 577 deputies who are elected for 5 year terms, although this can be shortened by the president who has the power to dissolve Parliament under Article 12 of the constitution. The senate is elected indirectly and has 9 year terms (National Assembly, 2003). The National Assembly was formed during the French revolution. In 1814 the monarchy was restored with an extension of parliamentary power they then created the 'republican Republic' 1877 (Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134) From 1877 to 1914 the National Assembly was extremely strong and reduced the government to a role as a 'mere committee who's main task was to implement parliaments decisions' (Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134). From 1918 the parliament went into progressive decline due to the impact of foreign and colonial wars, the military occupation, the increasingly complicated legislation and the onset of more organised pressure groups (taken from Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134). These factors meant that the
"It is claimed that the food media create a well informed and knowledgeable public that demand higher standards of quality and innovations in food and dining".
Module: Food, hospitality and society Module Code: B - 4042 Topic: "It is claimed that the food media create a well informed and knowledgeable public that demand higher standards of quality and innovations in food and dining". Word Count: 1890 Wikipedia defines Food as "Any substance consumed by living organisms, including liquid drinks, as the main source of energy and of nutrition which is usually of animal or plant origin (Wikipedia, No date). Other than food as the source of energy, it has a range of functions in addition to which are; acting as a pastime for personal indulgence or as a focus for socialising with family, friends and others and in contributing to a general sense of individual and national well-being. Consumer's preferences and demands are increasing day by day. A desire for premium quality of product and willingness to pay more to obtain a durable and efficient commodity is knows as "Neotraditionalism" (Senauer. B; et.al, 1993, p.59). Consumers increasingly want more variety and diversity in their diets, as individuals and as society. Today, all these aspects are increased by media and also fulfilled by media. In post-industrial societies in the late 20th century, food and dining out are cultural good, purchased for pleasure rather than utility (Finkelstein, 1989). These cultural goods assume to have a symbolic value and are purchase to
"Labour's defeats provoked the party to modernise itself, by changing in order to embrace many of the changes that had been undertaken by the Thatcher and Major governments (R. Heffernan)." Discuss.
"Labour's defeats provoked the party to modernise itself, by changing in order to embrace many of the changes that had been undertaken by the Thatcher and Major governments (R. Heffernan)." Discuss. Following defeat in the 1979 General Election, the Labour Party was demoralised and in complete disarray under the leadership of Michael Foot. Many believed that the party may never recover and that it was a spent force. The party was nowhere near being considered a credible alternative to Thatcher's Conservative Government. Few trusted the Labour party and its programme was broadly incoherent, irrelevant and unpopular. The party was plagued by bitter in-fighting, which eventually caused the formation of the SDP in 1981, and it had been seriously wounded by its economic failings in government, which included the notorious 'Winter of Discontent.' Britain was also changing in a way that was robbing 'Old' Labour of its core support. 'Old' Labour did not appeal to a society with aspirations where individualism dominated and class consciousness was being eroded (Fielding, 2003, 86). What is more, Thatcher's Government did its best to compound these trends and became the 'natural party of government.' It became increasingly clear to many people inside the Labour Party that in order to survive, let alone ever form a government, the party would have to modernise and accommodate
"Learning to understand what people are communicating......is a crucial skill within social work" (Trevithick 2000:53) Discuss the importance of effective listening for social work practice.
"Learning to understand what people are communicating......is a crucial skill within social work" (Trevithick 2000:53) Discuss the importance of effective listening for social work practice. Within the constraints of 2,500 words, this essay will define what listening is in respect to social work. It will also describe the possible barriers (both internal and external) to effective listening, presenting the reader with a wider understanding of what listening is, why it is so important to effective social work, and the also identify the possible harm and risks to service users by displaying ineffective listening skills. In an attempt to maintain confidentiality within this essay, the names and identifying details of any service users have been altered. "If you measured the importance of an activity, by the time you spent on it, then - according to numerous research studies- listening would be your most important communication activity." (DeVito 2003:78) There is however, a measured difference between listening and hearing. Even the dictionary is able to differentiate between hearing and listening. Hear: To perceive (sound etc) with the ear. (Oxford:1996:458) Listen: Make an effort to hear something. attentively: hear a person speaking. (Oxford:1996:580) Hearing is an involuntary biological happening, something that occurs when you open your ears, or when you are
"Lesbians and gay men have always existed in every historical period and across all cultures."Discuss, with particular reference to the relationship between category labels
"Lesbians and gay men have always existed in every historical period and across all cultures." Discuss, with particular reference to the relationship between category labels (or 'identities') and behaviours. Nowadays, when you look up in most of the dictionaries, you can find that the definition for "heterosexuality" is sexual orientation to and sexual activity with someone of the opposite sex, which means that heterosexual person are feeling sexually attracted to people of a different sex. And the meaning for "homosexuality" is sexual orientation to and sexual activity with someone of the same sex, which means that homosexual person are sexually attracted only to people of the same sex. "[A]lthough sex was the root of the matter... it was as likely to be expressed in drinking together, in flirting and gossip and in a circle of friends as in actual liaisons" (Bray, 1988: 84), do these terms simply direct to the behaviours of sexual orientation (love-making) or merely close relationships (consummate love with intimacy, commitment and passion) between couples? Or may be both? And for what we understand now, lesbians and gay men are homosexuals. But do lesbians and gay men have always existed? Probably yes by the definitions written above. However, the behaviour of love-making was not identified as neither heterosexual nor homosexual in the past. These terms was not given until
The Tobacco Problem in Canadian Society
Tobacco & Drug Problems in Canadian Society Tobacco is a drug, and its addictive qualities and harmful effects have been well documented. Smoking is now widely acknowledged as the greatest single preventable cause of disease, disability and death in our society and is estimated to result in 3 5,000 premature deaths a year. Despite increased awareness of the risks of lung cancer, a substantial portion of young people ignore the hazards and begin smoking in their early teens. Teens who smoke are three times more likely than nonsmokers to use alcohol, eight times more likely to use marijuana, and 22 times more likely to use cocaine. Smoking is associated with a host of other risky behaviors, such as fighting and engaging in unprotected sex. A recent study indicates that 34% of all Canadians smoke this translates into nearly 8 million smokers. The most import thing that could decrease the use of tobacco especially in teens is to change some of the tobacco and drug policies of the government and to increase public awareness of all the risks of smoking such as the lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, eniphyserna and other types of cancer and awareness of the dangers of smoking during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills must also be increased. And the most important is the awareness and enforcement of the federal, provincial and municipal tobacco laws because they are
"The Budget is Merely the Culmination of a Design Deliberately Adopted and Steadily Pursued" - Discuss.
"The Budget is Merely the Culmination of a Design Deliberately Adopted and Steadily Pursued" This quote is referring to the constitutional conflict between the democratically elected party, the Liberals, and the House of Lords. The conflict arose due to the fact that the un elected party, the conservatives were able to block legislation from passing through the House of Lords, putting a strain on the British democratic constitution. The quote is basically implying that the people's Budget of 1909 was a plan or strategy made by the Liberals to reduce the power of the House of Lords. It was felt by some that the budget was not introduced to help the British population, but its ulterior motive was to provoke the House of Lords into rejecting. However, the Liberals insisted differently, saying that it was merely for social reform. This argument can be split into two halves. Firstly the idea that the budget was a deliberate provocation of the House of Lords, which is in agreement with the Quote. One of the Conservative's main arguments was that the Liberals had no electoral mandate to pass this Act. They had not legal or moral power given to them to propose and pass the legislation, as they had never mentioned the People's Budget during the election campaign. The supporters were voting for their proposals concerning Taff Vale and Chinese Slavery etc. The Lords had