• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline and critically review the principal arguments in The Kuhnian View by Haines-Young and Petch!!! Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born on July 18, 1922, in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Outline and critically review the principal arguments in The Kuhnian View by Haines-Young and Petch!!! Thomas Samuel Kuhn was born on July 18, 1922, in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Kuhn went on to become one of most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century and some would say the most influential. His book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most cited academic books of all time. His contribution to the philosophy science marked not only a break with several key positivist doctrines but also inaugurated a new style of philosophy of science that brought it much closer to the history of science. The main argument of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that science is not solely based on reason. Kuhn believes that factors such as race, age and culture all effect science. Kuhn believes that a paradigm is a traditional accepted idea which can be affected by sociological factors such as education and textbooks. "According to Kuhn the development of a science is not uniform but has alternating 'normal' and 'revolutionary' phase" (http://plato.stanford.edu). ...read more.

Middle

Jones tested Kuhn's views against the theory of plate tectonics. Before the 1960's many people believed that the earth was stable. This was known as the 'Stabilist Paradigm'. There were many questions that arouse from this idea such as why had land bridges disappeared therefore a new paradigm was easily accepted. After the 1960's there was effidence to suggest that the world was not fixed but that plates moved. This gave rise to a new paradigm, the 'Mobilist Paradigm'. This example shows that Kuhn's ideas could be related to actual changes in the earths structure. Kuhn's views can also be related to Aristotle's idea that the universe consisted of five elements but when Biswas came up with a different idea a new paradigm began. Although Kuhn's views have been widely accepted in general terms he has been criticised for his use of the word 'Paradigm'. Sphere (1964) believes that the way Kuhn uses the word in broad general terms undermines his views. Sphere accuses Kuhn of "inflating the definition of paradigm until it becomes so vague and ambiguous that it cannot be easily withheld" ( Haines-Young et al). ...read more.

Conclusion

According to Hacking (1983) there are three main ways in which theories can be incommensurable. Firstly there is topic incommensurability. This is when two entirely different topics are being discussed. For a comparison to be made the two theories must be on the same topic. The second type is incommensurability by dissociation. This happens when a theory from the past can no longer be understood by today's generation. For people today to understand Aristotle's ideas they would have to dissociate themselves from today's way of thinking. The final type is meaning incommensurability. This is connected with the meaning of words in which any comparison between theories is attempted. This comes to the front because many believe that the meaning of scientific terms can only be understood in the context of a theory. So therefore if theories are incommensurable then there can be no rational basis for choosing between them. The choice may be down to other determining factors such as political forces. Kuhn concludes: "As in political revolutions ....... There is no higher standard than the assent of the relevant community" (Kuhn, 1970a, pg 94) Aine Clinton 12660043 110GGY228 Outline and Critically Review the Principal Arguments in "The Kuhnian View" by Haines-Young and Petch. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Social Theory section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Social Theory essays

  1. All Souls (book review)

    He recalled vivid memories of the anti-busing riots of the early 70's and the chaos that occurred before his very eyes. Among various other life-altering events, MacDonald was forced to experience the untimely and unfortunate deaths of his brothers, sisters, and friends.

  2. This assignment will analyse critically key ethical, attitudinal, political issues and historical development of ...

    In fact according to Ellis and High (2004) due to this law schools and teachers are reluctant to talk about same sex relationship, perhaps this explains schools reluctance to discuss homosexual issues. However section 28 of the local government law has been scrutinised, and as of 2006 policies were reinforced to minimise these types of discrimination within services (Fish, 2009).

  1. The scientific field of microbiology.

    Antony van Leeuwenhoek The next leap forward in discovery was prompted by Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). The Dutchman from Delft, Holland was not a trained scientist, and had no higher education. He did not know Latin, or the language of science, and would most likely have been excluded from most scientific circles under normal circumstances.

  2. A Greater Truth - The Evolution of a Paradigm

    In the realm of normal science, the strength and influence of paradigms is strongest and thus the negative effect of rigid paradigmatic thought is magnified. Kuhn defines normal science as "research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time

  1. Discuss the merits and limitations of a psychotherapeutic paradigm.

    They claim that a conflict arises when one is unable to fulfill ones desires immediately due to reality or the conscious not allowing it. This generates anxiety which arises when one feels that they are unable to cope, this can be both conscious and unconscious and is what gives rise

  2. Whether we call it globalisation or internationalization, very few people, organisations or states stand ...

    The Feminist writer Saskia Sassen refers to the women in the South who work in poor paid assembly-line work as 'offshore proletariat', an 'invisible and disempowered class of workers for Page 2 whom work is simply a dead end drudgery'.

  1. "A devil, a born devil, on whose nature nurture can never stick" (?)Shakespeare (1610)

    Phrenology (as this concept was called) illustrates the beginnings of empiricism; the idea of knowledge through measurement. Around the same time Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) proposed criminals were a product of genetic constitution, unlike that found in non-criminals. Lombroso later expanded his theory to include the way in which environmental and psychological factors may interact with heritability to contribute towards criminal behaviour.

  2. "Stereotypes are always inaccurate" Critically discuss.

    Results showed agreement between self and hetero-stereotypes, but less agreement between the EPPS responses and both national self-stereotypes and national hetero-stereotypes. The respondents couldn't even perceive their own national group accurately never mind a foreign group. This questions how useful these, 'vereotypes' are at reflecting stereotypes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work