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University Degree: Political & Economic Sociology

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  1. Violence as Abjection

    65) When a person is thrashed into the realm of the abject, his imaginary borders disintegrate and the abject, that is violence, becomes a tangible threat because his identity system and conception of order has been disrupted. As Kristeva (1982) theorises, it is not the "lack of cleanliness or health that causes abjection but what disturbs the identity, system, order." (p. 4) Yet, because the object of abjection lies close by but cannot be assimilated (Kristeva 1982, p. 3), a person is both drawn to and repelled by the abject; such repulsion expressed in terms of nausea, adrenalin and fear (Green 1999).

    • Word count: 2800
  2. What Strategies Should Canadian Workers and the Canadian Labour Movement Develop in Order to Face the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century?

    The question of quality work will intensify over the next century and unions need to focus their attention on this critical issue. Heron reminds unions that they need to avoid being seen as protecting the wages of current workers by focusing on broader issues of work quality, healthier and safer workplaces, skill upgrading, fair job distribution and worker input into decision making. (Heron, 2006, p. 165) Lowe supports this position by stating that quality work rests on four pillars: work that is fulfilling and meaningful to workers personally, work that provides a decent standard of living and including economic security

    • Word count: 1273
  3. Discuss Marxist approaches to the role of contemporary education

    The exclusion of education as a key component in Classical Marxism had later been disparaged. However, the presence of criticism did create a progression of Marxist school of thought, in which Marxists and neo-Marxists refined and amended Marxist theories that recognised the importance of, and influenced, education (Kellner, 2003). In conjunction, education had, since Marx's time, been recognised as a vital influential factor in class struggle, stressing that is the Capitalist class that moulds and controls the system of education in order to create a workforce that suits its own requirements (Taylor et al., 2000).

    • Word count: 2625
  4. Do the poor only have themselves to blame for their poverty?

    it is argued that people who are poor are in that state because of some personal or cultural deficiency. Essentially saying it is their own fault if they are poor. One of the approaches within the dependency-based explanations is the individual. This approach quite simply says "poverty is a result of the individual to achieve success through his or her own efforts. People who are poor are lazy or incompetent, and should try harder." Moore, S. (1996: 293). One of the arguments developed by David Marsland was that "individuals will to work was undermined by the excessively generous state welfare benefits."

    • Word count: 1757
  5. Anti-globalisation

    Starr and Adams from the USA identify significant, 'modes' within the anti-globalisation movement: 'radical reform', which is state-friendly; 'people's globalisation', related to the WSF; and 'autonomy', known for the ecological friendliness and democratic qualities of freely co-operating communities (Waterman, 2003). Mario Pianta from Italy, divides the responses to neoliberal globalisation into 'supporters of current arrangements,' 'reformists,' 'radical critics favouring another globalisation,' 'alternatives outside the mainstream', and 'nationalist rejectionists' (Waterman, 2003). Overview of anti-globalisation movements The World Social Forum (WSF) has become the most popular forum associated with the recent international wave of protest known as the 'anti-globalisation movement'.

    • Word count: 6821
  6. Working Class Youth Subcultures

    Subcultures also represent a pride of identity while at the same time seeking to belong in society. Even though a subculture may be a minority group, it can also emerge within a minority group such as punk within youth. (Brake, M.1993). Although the concept of subculture is not flawless, the idea can be a useful tool for analysing the structure and custom of minority social groups. Knowing this is, this essay will discuss why it was that the Birmingham school believed that the working class youth subcultures were a form of resistance and can recent youth subcultures be analysed in a similar way to become a form of resistance.

    • Word count: 2180
  7. Social policy. Making use of welfare ideologies critically evaluate developments in social policy since the Second World War with reference to education.

    Most increasingly, it's influenced remains today on the current policies having an impact thirty years later. Reference: - http://www.answers.com/topic/new-right web page viewed on 25/2/2010 Books read: - J. Baldck, N. Manning, S. Miller, S. Vickerstaff (1999) 'social Policy), Oxford M. Lavalette, A. Pratt (2006) social policy theories concept and issues third addition, sage publication Third way (new Labour) this is an approach which new labour underpins its policies. Many people have found the third way to be rather confused mixture of new rights thinking mixed with bits of many of the other theories.

    • Word count: 3241
  8. European Union

    Moreover, the treatment of Germany remained as the core problem in Europe which caused two world wars. The crucial point was that Franco-Germany rivalry should have turned to Franco-Germany alliance in order to benefit Western Europe. Therefore, integration was significantly demanded rather than competition and nationalism. According to MaCormich, Winston Churchill, who advocated 'a United States of Europe', claimed that the core of European integration would be axis of Franco-Germany alliance. In addition, Germany had to be allowed to rebuild their economy and political system in a way aiming at reconstruction of economic and security in Europe (MaCormich, 1999, 64-65).

    • Word count: 2878
  9. Malaysia's New Economic Policy 1969

    The overriding objective was cohesion in the country.4 Objectives The New Economic Policy was basically formulated with an ambitious yet important objective of creating a harmony and united nation as well as fostering nationhood spirit among all Malaysians. The New Economic Policy and the objectives where based on the principles in the Federal Constitution of Malaysia and the Rukunegara.5 In the Second Malaysia Plan (1971-1975) the objective was stated quite clear that "under the New Economic Policy, development will be undertaken in such a manner that in the process of growth and expansion, it makes the maximum contribution to the

    • Word count: 2546
  10. Assess the impact of Thatcherism on British Society

    Although the LEAs lost control of education, parents were encouraged to participate actively in their progeny's academic well-being, as they now had the possibility to choose (Fulcher & Schott, 2003). Research performed by Gewirtz et al (1995) on the education system post conservative reform indicated a movement; schools were now enthusiastic to attract academically sound students, in order to boost rankings at GCSE examinations and consequently in the published 'League Tables'. Amongst the most effective policies proposed by the Thatcher government, was that of its privatisation scheme, though it was omitted from the 1979 conservative manifesto, it was to become a significant factor (Gamble, 1988).

    • Word count: 1486
  11. In order to more specifically examine the concept of social class and to look at unemployment and how it can lead to crime and deviance, this essay will focus on three areas. First, a brief description of social class will be presented.

    These factors play a significant role in the lower class. The upper class, also known as capitalist, tends to be the most powerful within society. They are the old and rich who derive their wealth through inheritance over several generations; they own companies in which they have people working for them. Social class is basically an economic phenomenon and is defined by an individuals' position in the social relations of production. According to Marx "Tendency for ownership to reside in a class had created social rule in producers and non producers of labour" [Macionis & Plummer, 1997, p 76].

    • Word count: 2099
  12. Discuss the main influences in the development of social policy before 1945 with reference to Poor Law reform.

    This group were classified as reliant because they would work but couldn't due to their circumstances. The other group included able bodied who could work but wouldn't. The treatment towards this group was very harsh. Violence against them was chosen so that the able-bodied realised the error of their actions. (M.A CROWTHER 1981) After the year 1700 workhouses were the new idea that would enable the poor law to be more controllable. The workhouses were built so that the paupers could support themselves by working. Eventually the outcome of this idea was not as expected because of growth in unemployment and low wages.

    • Word count: 2336
  13. Australia is a democracy. In consequence, there is no ruling class. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

    have defined interests that may run contrary to the rest of society or other majority classes, (3) have a disproportionate control of power in the society, and (4) choose to exercise this power in order to achieve their distinct class interests (the third condition is demonstrated by the fourth). For the purpose of this essay class will be understood in the Marxian sense, in that one's class is derived from one's relation to the means of production (Bullbeck 1993: 103). This is not to say that one's position within the labour market is of no consequence; higher income jobs often convey more power (eg.

    • Word count: 3699
  14. DD100. TMA02 Describe what Tables 1 and 2 tell us about the variations in the new planting and restocking in forests and woodlands in the UK over the period 2003-07

    - 2007 but an increase in broadleaves from 2004 and small decline in 2005 then a rise in plantation for 2006 and again a small decline in 2007. Looking at Table 2 we see that the overall restocking of plantation in the UK rose from 14.5 thousand hectares in 2003 to 14.9 in 2004 and then remained consistent for 2005 and 2006 with a further rise to 17.7 in 2007. A difference from table 1 is that across all regions more conifers were restocked (in table 1 we noted that more broadleaves were planted).

    • Word count: 1625
  15. Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of Chauncey Starr(TM)s approach to societal risk assessment with reference to the later writings of other authors.

    The objective of this would be to find a way that allows for the maximum social benefit at the minimum social cost. This method was based on two assumptions; that historical accident records were accurate and adequate for the purpose that they were required and that past behaviour and attitudes within society regarding the use of new technology could be used to predict future behaviour and attitudes. Chauncey Starr also highlights the problems of assessing the risks of new technologies in society today.

    • Word count: 2163
  16. Free essay


    I would like to start my personal essay with my own case. When I first entered my senior school, I became very nervous since I had known my new desk-mate, who was a very high intelligent student with all 'A' academic performance but also tended to be conceited and disingenuous. I heard some about him before, and had developed an impression that he was hard to communicate. This was proved when I first entered the classroom. When I sat down, my new desk-mate, who was reading his notes, even did not say hello to me!

    • Word count: 1783
  17. Cuba, a country profile.

    The government of Cuba have instated a law requiring members of the rural population wishing to migrate to the capital of Cuba to first apply for official permission (CIA Factbook, 2009). This is to prevent over population in the capital of Cuba and a population shortage in the rural areas. As mentioned above, Cuba has a land area of 110, 860 sq km. This helped us determine that it is a fairly small country, slightly smaller than Pennsylvania. Some of the natural resources that were mentioned were oil, cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, and sal t.

    • Word count: 2206
  18. Examine the rise of the Celtic Tiger(TM) and critically assess the benefits it is said to have brought to Irish society.

    The country was gradually electrified and new state-owned factories were encouraged, such as the Shannon Hydroelectric scheme. Ireland's Free State sought economic protectionism, i.e. a free market internally within protective walls and imposed tariffs on British consumer goods. However the country was not wealthy enough to sustain the limited trading and in the 1950's, under pressure from the USA, it began to 'open up' its economy to liberal economic principles, I.e. an internationally 'free market'. This brought about the formation of the Irish Development Authority in 1950 which was set up to encourage and subsidise foreign investment, following this in 1957 Ireland joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

    • Word count: 1575
  19. What were the arguments of the New Right against the Welfare State(TM)? How were these arguments reflected in Social Policy in the period 1979 to 1997?

    intended to ensure the well-being of it's members, through providing education for children, access to healthcare, financial support for periods out of the labour market, and so on." Scott, J. and G. Marshall, (2005:699). Here, the 'Welfare State' allows the state or government to take responsibility of individuals' well-being, ensuring the consequences of individuals' actions within society comes to a benefit. The welfare state was first developed in the 1940's within Britain after the post-war establishment, it was considered to be "an organ of the community whose role was to serve the welfare of its citizens and respect international law, as opposed to the tyrannical 'warfare' state" Lowe, R.

    • Word count: 2245
  20. What are Unions and What do they do

    Unions, in a general sense, are essentially the united voice of a working population. They perform the primary task of functioning as the power source of the workers. They exist, in theory, as a result of the illusion of inequity that Marx argued endures in the workplace. Marx contended that the abundance of workers compared to jobs, and the owner's control over the means of production created inequalities in the workplace agreement.(Black 19). Unions came to exist as a method for workers to collaborate to attempt to overcome these inequalities through creating a united voice.

    • Word count: 1218
  21. Quality of Work

    Since the importance of these issues will vary between individuals it is difficult to determine which are more relevant in providing a definition of quality of work. Lowe's argument is that "The quality-of-work that Canadians want rests on four pillars." (174, Lowe) Lowe provides the following characteristics: 1. The opportunity to engage in tasks that are fulfilling and meaningful to workers personally. 2. A decent standard of living-not just a reasonable wage, but a sense of economic security 3. Health ,well-being, and support for family life, or life outside work generally 4. Worker participation in decision-making and other (undefined)

    • Word count: 1357
  22. Critical analysis of the Poverty Policy in South Africa

    Apartheid was in existence between the years 1948 to 1994 Mulholland, R (1997). Inevitably; non-whites lived in poverty due to the exclusionary apartheid system that set the poverty datum line lower than that of their white counterparts Wright, G., Magasela, W (2007). The desire to live out of poverty was one of the fundamental reasons why the black majority in South Africa fought against Apartheid, which was exclusionary. However, Apartheid came to an end in 1994 and a democratic government, led by the African National Congress. South Africa's anti poverty policies date back to 1994 as part and parcel of the Reconstruction and Development programme under the new democratic government Surrender, R, Ntshongwana, P (2007).

    • Word count: 937
  23. Iz teoreticnih razprav o demokraciji

    Robert Michels, Carl Schmitt, Marx Weber, Gaetano Mosca, Wilfredo Pareto, Joseph A. Schumpeter so opozarjali, da koncept vladavine ljudstva ni realen, in da je potrebno moderno pojmovanje demokracije ali deologizirati. V politiki naj bi po njihovem mnenju bile realne le elite, ki med seboj tekmujejo za oblast, in nesposobna mno�ica, ki potrebuje usmeritve elite, ki morajo biti profesionalne, saj so le tak�ne sposobne spremljati zahtevne zakonodajne in administrativne ukrepe. S tem so ti avtorji vplivali med drugimi tudi na oblikovanje alternativnih, tehnokratskih koncepcij, zlasti t.i.

    • Word count: 3982
  24. children's labor

    comes to one's children but what about the 250 million working children around the world, the ten million street children in the Arab World? Who is taking care of them? In fact, Child labour is a complex social and political issue with a long and evolving history: child labour first became an international issue in the 1860s, but it was not until the 1980s, more than a century later, that a global movement began to take shape. Then, in the second half of the 1990s, the international profile of child labour attained unprecedented levels.

    • Word count: 2905
  25. Is the Government doing enough to prevent marginalisation and exclusion in Britain?

    The aim is to empower the youngsters of today, teach them their responsilities, towards each other, the planet and themselves and give them a voice; for they are the future of our society. This essay will consider and reflect upon the success of this aim and whether the highlighted excluded groups are supported effectively by external agencies, given the opportunity to have their voices heard and allowed to make positive contributions within society. The Governments main initiative has been to make schools more inclusive in order to narrow the gap between the rich and poor and reach a social cohesion.

    • Word count: 3448

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